Entrepreneurial Intention Among Academicians in Mexico: A Descriptive Approach

Entrepreneurial Intention Among Academicians in Mexico: A Descriptive Approach

Cynthia L. Franco-Rodriguez (Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico) and Patricia Esther Alonso-Galicia (Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8939-6.ch008

Abstract

Scarce research was identified regarding the academic entrepreneur as a critical agent of change and its relation within the process of academic entrepreneurship, as well as the dynamics of different factors in the decision to become an entrepreneur. The study of academicians' entrepreneurial intention is of special relevance due to their roles as teachers and researchers, and because entrepreneurs are part of innovation ecosystems, entrepreneurial universities, entrepreneurship, and innovation itself. Accordingly, academic entrepreneurs have become the focus and strategic orientation of decision makers in the higher education system. Consequently, the purpose of this descriptive study is to contribute to the knowledge of the characteristics of academicians in Mexico and the way these characteristics influence the entrepreneurial intention. In this chapter, a sample of 209 scholars was obtained. The results show significant differences for entrepreneurial intention depending on previous work experience and formation.
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Academic Entrepreneurship And Entrepreneurial University

The term “entrepreneurial university” has become valid since the third mission of the university in response to a series of demands from governments, industry, and society in general. In general, most HEIs overview with limitations regarding loans and public resources to meet their needs for going through a process of transformation, by acquiring capacities that allow them to be more flexible. This change or modification moves away from the traditional paradigm for being more innovative, proactive, and even “enterprising” (Clark, 2004). The entrepreneurial university continues to prioritize scientific research, but also increasingly produces technology, and even innovation (Etzkowitz & Viale, 2010). Therefore, an entrepreneurial university should promote various management techniques, strategic and competitive positions. Also, it has been suggested that they should be involved in associations, networks, and other types of relationships with public and private organizations to foster the interaction, collaboration, and cooperation with other HEIs (Annamária, 2004).

Entrepreneurial universities are more proactive, as they modify the classical model of teaching and research-oriented HEI by incorporating a new mission: the HEI as an engine of economic development and social context where it operates (Chrisman et al., 1995; Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005). As a result, Guerrero and Urbano (2014) define the entrepreneurial university as a survivor of competitive environments with a common strategy aimed at being the best in all of its activities (e.g., healthy finances, good students and teachers, high-quality research) trying to be more productive and creative when establishing links between education and research.

Key Terms in this Chapter

GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor): Founded by Babson College (USA) and London Business School (UK), this organization is the world's foremost study of entrepreneurship.

Academician: A university professor who combines teaching and research among his or her professional tasks.

National System of Researchers (SNI): The public organization that economically encourages researchers working in public and private HEI in Mexico.

Entrepreneurship: It is a dynamic process of creation and innovation, which is carried out by differentiated individuals (entrepreneurs) who can generate ideas, perceive market opportunities, manage uncertainty and risk, and combine, manage and take advantage of resources and institutions to create value in products and services.

Entrepreneurial Intention: The cognitive concept for the degree of readiness that an individual has for business creation.

Triple Helix: It is formed by the creation of university-industry-government linkages to foster economic growth and social change to fight poverty and social exclusion.

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