Entrepreneurship Approach to Higher Education Policy Aspects

Entrepreneurship Approach to Higher Education Policy Aspects

Mukund Deshpande
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6198-1.ch008
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To disseminate higher education and provide new alternatives to traditional models, an entrepreneurial approach to university education is desirable. Researchers have pleaded that learning and teaching in higher education over the last two decades has provided a variety of concepts, methods, and findings that are of both theoretical interest and practical relevance. Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key to economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. The intent of this chapter is to educate the institutions, students, learners, and the public in general about the path to higher education that is intended in today's globalization scenario to meet with diverse needs of profession, business, and government. In short, the chapter highlights and elaborates the grouping of policies used to achieve higher education leading to elevated standard in the society. This chapter provides material to institutions, universities, and researchers to understand better the growing importance of the MENA region in today's global economy that would facilitate acquiring knowledge for developing the relatively understudied MENA region. This province is looking for prospects in developing higher education owing to its budding significance in the world economy. In particular, the chapter explores how global higher education and technological advancements are influencing the progress and prosperity of this region.
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Globalization has influenced all the countries in the world and MENA region is not an exception since it is as well experiencing transition owing to its dissemination effects. World Economic Forum in December 2010 made a wide set of recommendations for the development of this region that includes higher education as a prime condition. Integrating innovation and entrepreneurial thinking into the education process is a prerequisite to build and foster the 21st century skills, aptitudes, attitudes and entrepreneurial mindsets that the youth of the region need to acquire to succeed and grow opportunity moving forward. Some countries have already commenced developing their entrepreneurial ecosystems but this tends to focus on the higher education level and, as yet, only a handful of countries in the region are actively introducing national policies related to the implementation of entrepreneurial learning in their national education curricula. Popular demands for greater freedoms are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa Region, and political reforms are, as a result, further strengthened through empowered and educated citizens that can make informed choices in free and fair elections, safeguarded by an independent and a vibrant civil society. UNESCO supports to create more open, pluralistic and knowledge-based societies. It has its offices in Cairo, Rabat, Beirut, Doha and Amman and new project antenna offices in Tunis and Tripoli which are set to develop this province and its actions are guided by the strategic objectives which include improving the quality of education as also enhancing freedom of expression and access to information. The other objectives of this region cover protecting and preserving cultural heritage; generating skills and economic prospects whilst some other are fostering democratic societies and supporting social transformation processes. The province has considerably increased access to and investment in education, but quality of education services needs to be better attended. Egypt, Tunisia and Libya are transitioning from restrictive media freedom toward a professional and independent media environment that can enable freedom of expression, pluralism and independence of media. The region’s cultural heritage includes seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Egypt, eight in Tunisia and five in Libya. Cultural heritage is a source of national pride and also of income generation, with cultural tourism being one of the most important sectors of the economy. Cultural Heritage remains endangered by the risk of conflict or volatile security. This province has among the world’s highest youth unemployment rates, with one in four young people out of work. UNESCO’s activities promote tolerance, good governance and rule of law; strengthening human rights and supporting civil society.

Global Investments in the Region

Global investments, from diverse sources, have started commencing in the MENA region for its development plans. Some organizations have already entered into the development accord. In 2013, UNESCO signed plan of operation with the Palestine to support university students under Saudi funded project. The Japanese Government, in the year 2012, granted about five million dollars to support UNESCO’s post conflict and disaster response in Africa and Middle East. In 2011, Irina Bokova urged protection of Cairo’s cultural sites after fire at the Institute of Egypt while in 2011, UNESCO came up to resume cooperation with Libya. Financiers have, in addition, shown deep interest in investing in the renewable energy projects which are the opportunities currently on hand and to remove blockages to potential investment in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. This has been summarized in two round-table talks, in late 2010, and 2011 for bringing together mainstream financiers, both from London and the region itself. Financiers from diverse range of capacity include international project finance banks, regional or global heads of renewable energy, investment banks, as well as specialized private equity, and a more limited number of equity and banking institutions based in the Gulf region, all with an active interest in renewable energy.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Policy on Higher Education: It is a course of action (stated as policy statement) arrived at by a higher educational institution after carefully studying diverse factors on higher education as the types, stakeholders, resources, value, purpose & benefits. the course of action is able to address the challenges without creating undesired effects.

Policy Statistical Analysis: It is analytical tool which relies on statistical computations and it has the ability to write, handle quantitative data, build conceptual models, and argue persuasively that is considered vital at times to justify big data.

Policy Aspects: A feature, step or characteristic that is considered mandatory to formulate a course of action based on challenges to be addressed.

Policy Analysis: It is a process of evaluating policy issues, the course of action with the goal and identifying its intended outcome, strong analytical and communications skills are essential for analysis of policies.

Policy Objectives: They are problem statements which are formulated to identify or search suitable solution that is usually called a course of action.

Policy Formulation: It is the process of arriving at statements by organizing policy resources and supporting information to convert ideas into solutions that are practically implementable to deal with certain activity or address challenges evolved therewith and which are in the direction of the policy objectives.

Policy Purpose: It is the ground, cause or a reason for which suitable course of action is deployed by the institution.

Entrepreneurship Approach: It is a multi-dimensional course of action based on imagination, initiative, innovating and motivating attitude as principal dimensions that is designed to address challenges evolved in the external environment after studying its overall & segmental viability and undertaken to reach the desired goal in any particular domain.

Policy Resources: Policy resources are the assets available to the management of the enterprise or institution in the form of financial, materials, services, staff or other possessions which are utilizable to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable.

Policy Analyst: Is a person who has overall academic background relevant to business, education, market, economics and analyzing technical training and experience in a particular applied field such as the business or education.

Policy Conceptualization: It is a process of creating multiple ideas that are able to constitute the solutions and have the ability to address challenges or concerns by merely stretching of thoughts and application of mind to managing certain state of affairs relating to certain field of activity.

Policy Data: This is a back up information that is necessary in arriving at deciding issues in policy making. This information is made available in various forms of factors, variables, issues or concerns and solutions. it also includes institutional information in the form of record, brochures, etc., objectives, vision & mission statements and documents on existing and other policies relevant to the policy objectives.

Policy: It is a plan or course of action, of a government, institution, political party, or enterprise, which is intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters.

Policy Consistency: Policy consistency means compatibility and uniformity of course of actions between the top to the bottom level stakeholders so that it can be correctly and efficiently followed by all of them without creating a conflict.

Higher Education: It is a post-secondary education that is also considered as tertiary or third level education or optionally a final stage of formal learning including research programmes that is often delivered at universities, and institutes of higher education which award academic degrees or professional certifications.

Policy Effectiveness: In respect of education means the effect the policy has created in terms of is accessibility, utility, quality, and competitiveness that are eventually able to satisfy the setting in terms of legal, technical, marketing and economic aspects of the education processes.

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