Environmental Aspects of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases Neuropathologies: A Focus on Heavy Metals and Pesticides

Environmental Aspects of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases Neuropathologies: A Focus on Heavy Metals and Pesticides

Nadia Zouhairi (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Omar El Hiba (Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco & Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Hasna Lahouaoui (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Hind Benammi (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Hicham Chatoui (Private University of Marrakech, Morocco & Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Abdeljalil El Got (Hassan 1st University, Morocco), Abdelmohcine Aimrane (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Abdelali Bitar (Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco), Kholoud Kahime (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Ahmed Draoui (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Ouassil El Kherchi (Hassan 1st University, Morocco) and Wafa Ait Hmyed (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3441-0.ch005

Abstract

This chapter presents a literature review on the effect of environmental changes factors exposure in the etiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The use of pesticides is more intense and somehow erratic as it aims to face climate change consequences like drought and water scarcity. The rural population is getting to be more vulnerable to have these neurodegenerative diseases. However, intense food production and economic models mean also the use of heavy metals in many stages as well during the production and the consumption processes and practices. Evidence from experimental studies shows that such heavy metals may also be a factor for the occurrence of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. At least, the environmental lifestyle and, likely, genetic factors, individually and collectively, play a significant role in the etiology of the diseases.
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Parkinson And Alzheimer Diseases As Neurodegenerative Disorders: Etiology And History

Health care improvements have contributed to people living longer leading to an increasing life expectancy in the last decades. However, the cases of AD and PD increased as well. Parkinson’s diseases are among the most common neurodegenerative disorder after AD, and overall incidence rates for all age groups have been reported to range from 1.5 to 22 per 100,000 person-years. Other reports estimate the prevalence range of PD from 167 to 5703 per 100,000 with preference in men (Wirdefeldt, Adami, Cole, Trichopoulos, & Mandel, 2011)and these diseases are increasingly raising big international concerns in last decades due to their high incidence. Etiology of AD and PD still little understood and genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the onset and/or development of these illnesses, which highlights the need to broaden the research scope by identifying the environmental risk factors that predispose to the development of AD and PD. It is known that the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases is multifactorial, and there is evidence that external factors like lifestyle and chemical exposures are linked with the risks of onset of these diseases (Campdelacreu, 2014).The vast majority of AD and PD cases are observed among elderly persons. As the exposure to risk factors occur many years before the diagnosis, the assessment of these chronic exposures are difficult to perform in retrospective studies to associate them with the onset/development of AD and PD.

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