Enzyme Use and Production in Industrial Biotechnology

Enzyme Use and Production in Industrial Biotechnology

Subir Kumar Nandy (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5237-6.ch015

Abstract

This chapter demonstrates the bioprocess strategies involved in the application and production of enzymes from an industrial view point. Moreover, bottlenecks in enzyme production and novel strategies to overcome the barriers are demonstrated here. Enzymes are produced from different sources of microorganisms and mostly all biological reactions happen due to the help of enzymes within a very short time. The different uses of enzymes are discussed in this chapter.
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Introduction

A chemical reaction can be fastened by the catalyst. Enzymes are using as a biocatalyst in several biochemical reactions. Enzymes are also proteins that used to fast the reaction rate to form a product. Enzymes are available from variable sources such as from extreme environment or from microorganism from nature. Therefore, enzymes are the key factor to build and maintain the microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi and also all living organisms including human beings. Enzymes are so-called very small machines evolved millions of years to perform very specific biochemical tasks. Some enzymes have been designed by nature to build chemical compounds and others are either breaking them or modifying them over time. These breaking or modifying bond between molecules called reactions. Enzymes are used as a catalyst for the reaction so that the reaction is very fast (million times faster than normal reactions) and effective. As the population increases from last decades, researchers are working towards increasing the yield of feed/food, fruits and vegetables are in the increasing trend while a record of production of 1.74 billion tons in 2013 which is 9.4% more than in 2012 (WFO 2014). India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables with a global production share of 10% and 14% respectively (Ingale, Joshi, & Gupta, 2014). Therefore, total fruit and vegetables producing in all countries are limitless and their wastes are countless. Pollution and greenhouse gas effects are increased by the disposal of these fruit and vegetable wastes which is a matter of serious concern. Oelofse and Nahman, (2013) has shown an amount of 4.14 t of CO2 equivalent per ton of waste food. Upscaling of microbial processing technology of these wastes into essential enzymes and organic acids can also be done industrially.

Enzymes are very specific with the substrate and once if enzymes have the right substrate to act then the process becomes very faster. This system has been described by a lock (enzyme) and key (substrate) model. In the old time, people use natural process by using hand to make yogurt without knowing the enzyme involved in the process. In this line, enzyme engineering was developed to use enzymes in industrial processes and also the production of enzymes. Not surprisingly, industries were among the first to recognize and use this most potential of enzymes in different fields. The first field was food industry where enzymes have a big impact such as beer, milk, cheese, bread, juice industry and later the process has been developed to other sectors such as detergents, the pharmaceutical industry. Today the global market for industrial enzymes is growing rapidly and is currently worth more than two billion euro per annum where the most potential sectors are detergent, starch processing, food and feed industries and the recovery of oil and gas. Finally, enzyme using is very efficient, most cost-effective, less time consuming or the fastest process in the industry, and moreover, it is regarded as green or environmentally friendly technology ever (Nandy, 2016).

Enzyme engineering has wide use in industries and the industrial enzyme markets are growing very fast. So, it will be important and attractive to summarize what the current market of the industrial enzyme is, how enzymes are produced, and what the difficulties are. In the review, this interesting topic started and described the application of enzymes, production and technology for enzymes.

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