Epidemiology of Inflammation-Related Diseases

Epidemiology of Inflammation-Related Diseases

Kevser Tarı Selçuk (Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3594-3.ch002

Abstract

Inflammation, a vital defense mechanism for health, is defined as the immune system's response to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, toxic compounds or irradiation. Inflammation is usually examined in two groups: acute and chronic. Chronic inflammation instigates various kinds of diseases that cause premature mortality and morbidity such us cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus (DM), asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity, metabolic syndrome (METs), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), osteoporosis, and neurological diseases via dysregulation of various signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), signal transducer, activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), etc. These inflammation-related diseases are among the major causes of mortality and morbidity in almost every region of the world. Studies have shown that these diseases associated with inflammation have tended to increase worldwide.
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Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases, which is one of the leading non-communicable diseases and also known as heart diseases, is defined as “a series of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels such as coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, and heart failure” (Joseph et al., 2017; Mishra & Monica, 2019). Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Physical inactivity, tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy dietary habits are identified as major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (Joseph et al., 2017; Meier et al., 2019). Studies have shown that these major risk factors play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response (Casas & Estruch, 2016). Inflammation triggers the early stages of the atherosclerotic process and increases in inflammatory cytokines may cause an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and consequently, inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (Sorriento & Iaccarino, 2019; Yalçın & Rakıcıoğlu, 2018).

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