Essential Background Material

Essential Background Material

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8673-1.ch005
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Abstract

In order for design teams to design targeted operational systems, they must understand the essential background material: operational visibility, ambiguity challenges associated with risk management, and significantly, approach and landing safety. Operational visibility has guidelines for availability of a precision approach, low visibility, approach lights, and obstacle clearance. Visibility minimums are depicted as limiting factors but are otherwise advisory. Risk management issues need to be addressed with convergent technology applications and performance modeling. They need to be viewed as a cluster of events and identified as low, moderate, and high risks. A risk continuum shows the ranges from no appreciable risk to an imminent substantial negative outcome. Risks in takeoff and approaches were addressed in the Go-Around Safety Forum and in safety improvement strategies relating to the go-around decision making process and execution. Operational decision analytical structure is represented in a go-around decision model.
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Operational Visibility

This section covers operational visibility. Operational visibility is important for obvious reasons and is surprisingly not well understood. Many factors affect the visibility minimums depicted on each approach plate for a particular airport. These visibility minimums are depicted as limiting factors but are otherwise advisory in nature. The parameters affecting various approach options are depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Precision approach categories and visibility minimums

Visibility Modifying Factors

Many factors may affect the visibility minimums depicted on a particular approach plate. These include the availability of a precision approach, low visibility, approach lights, and obstacle clearance. Table 1 lists most of the modifying factors.

Table 1.
Modifying factors for visibility minimums
FactorsPrecisionNon-Precision
Approach lightsXXXX
Heavy aircraftXXXX
Obstacle clearanceXXXX
Center-line lightsXX

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