Ethical Foundations of Scientific Publishing: International Standards, National Practices, and Mitigating Violations – A Case Study of Türkiye

Ethical Foundations of Scientific Publishing: International Standards, National Practices, and Mitigating Violations – A Case Study of Türkiye

Copyright: © 2024 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/979-8-3693-1726-6.ch002
(Individual Chapters)
No Current Special Offers


Publishing ethics govern the behavior of individuals and organizations involved in disseminating research, crucial for maintaining the integrity and credibility of the academic corpus. Adherence to ethical principles in scientific publications is vital for upholding research integrity, fostering trust, and advancing scientific knowledge. International organizations enforce these ethics, formulating guidelines and overseeing practices. This section introduces global publication ethics committees, explores Türkiye's national practices, and discusses measures to enhance scientific publication quality. The chapter identifies publication ethics violations in Türkiye, concluding with recommendations to mitigate transgressions.
Chapter Preview


Ethics refers to the branch of philosophy that deals with moral principles, values, and rules that govern human behavior. It is a system of principles and rules that guide individuals in making decisions and choices, distinguishing between right and wrong, and determining the morality of actions (Aydın, 2014). Ethics include some of the critical components. While morality, principles, responsibility, fairness and justice, and integrity constitute the fundamental virtues of ethics, these virtues guide issues such as decision-making, creating social norms, and respecting others (Schroeder et al., 2019). Also, ethical decision-making takes into account the potential consequences of actions. It considers the immediate impact and long-term effects on individuals, communities, and society (Jones, 1991).

Ethical principles are fundamental beliefs or guidelines that shape ethical behavior. These principles often include honesty, integrity, fairness, and respect for others. Ethics provides a framework for decision-making, helping individuals and groups navigate complex situations where moral choices must be made. It involves weighing competing values and principles to arrive at morally sound decisions. Ethics emphasizes the importance of taking responsibility for one's actions. It involves being accountable for the consequences of decisions and recognizing the impact of individual and collective behavior on others. All these regulatory roles and ethics are often shaped by societal norms and cultural values (Dawson & Napper, 2018). What is considered ethical can vary across different cultures, but there are also universal principles that are commonly accepted. As a result, ethics is a dynamic and evolving field influenced by cultural, religious, philosophical, and societal factors. It provides a framework for individuals and communities to navigate the complexities of human interactions and make choices that align with moral principles (Knapp & VandeCreek, 2007).

In the academic field, many professions and organizations have specific codes of ethics that outline the expected behavior of their members. These codes serve as guidelines for ethical conduct within specific contexts (Aydın, 2014). Academic ethical codes outline the principles and guidelines that govern the behavior of individuals within the academic community (Karatay, 2022). These codes ensure the integrity, honesty, and responsible conduct of research, teaching, and other academic activities [All European Academies (ALLEA), 2023]. While specific details may vary among institutions and disciplines, standard academic ethical codes cover the following areas:

Research integrity: Covers honesty and truthfulness, data management, authorship and contributorship, and plagiarism. According to research integrity, researchers are expected to conduct their work honestly and honestly, accurately representing their methods, results, and conclusions (ALLEA, 2023). Ethical codes address proper data collection, storage, and sharing practices and guidelines for preventing data fabrication or manipulation (Shykhnenko & Sbruieva, 2022). Guidelines on authorship criteria, acknowledgment of contributions, and avoiding practices like ghostwriting are often included. Institutions typically prohibit plagiarism, requiring researchers to correctly attribute sources and give credit for others' work (İlğan, 2008).

Teaching and academic integrity: Covers fair evaluation, impartiality, cheating, and plagiarism. Ethical codes emphasize fair and unbiased evaluation of students and colleagues, discouraging favoritism or discrimination. For impartiality, faculty members are expected to treat all students fairly and impartially, avoiding conflicts of interest. Finally, for cheating and plagiarism, institutions address academic dishonesty, providing guidelines for dealing with cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of misconduct (Hyytinen & Löfström, 2017; Löfström et al., 2015).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Scientific Ethics: A branch of applied ethics, often explores the moral implications and considerations associated with research, experimentation, and professional conduct within various fields of study. It aims to establish guidelines and standards to ensure the responsible and ethical practice of science, promoting integrity, honesty, and the well-being of individuals and society.

National Organizations and Initiatives for Publishing Ethics in Türkiye: National organizations and initiatives collectively form a regulatory and supportive framework for ensuring the ethical conduct of academic research and publishing in Türkiye. Council of Higher Education (YÖK), Interuniversity Board (ÜAK), Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committees, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK), Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜIK) contribute to transparency, integrity, and adherence to ethical principles within the Turkish academic community.

Publication Ethics Violation: Refers to the breach of ethical standards and principles in creating, reviewing, editing, and disseminating scholarly works, including research papers, articles, and other academic publications. These violations encompass a range of actions that undermine the scholarly record's integrity, credibility, and reliability. Common examples include plagiarism (presenting someone else's work as one's own), falsification or fabrication of data, improper authorship practices, duplicate publication (submitting the same work to multiple outlets without proper disclosure), and failure to disclose conflicts of interest. Such violations compromise the trustworthiness of academic literature, hinder the advancement of knowledge, and may have severe consequences for the individuals involved and the institutions and journals associated with the publications. Upholding publication ethics is crucial for maintaining the quality and integrity of scholarly communication.

Publication Ethics: In the context of academic and scientific research, refers to the principles and standards that guide the conduct of authors, editors, peer reviewers, and publishers throughout publishing scholarly work. The aim is to ensure the published literature's integrity, transparency, and credibility. Publication ethics encompasses several vital elements to maintain the integrity and credibility of scholarly work. This includes ensuring authorship integrity by attributing contributions accurately and making all authors aware of and agree with the manuscript content. Originality and the prohibition of plagiarism are crucial, requiring verification that submitted work is not previously published and strictly prohibiting the uncredited use of others' ideas or words. Data integrity is paramount, demanding accuracy and reliability, while conflicts of interest must be disclosed to prevent undue influence on research outcomes. Peer review should be fair and unbiased, emphasizing constructive feedback. Editorial independence is essential, and decisions are based on research quality rather than the author's reputation. Transparent reporting of methods, results, and funding sources is crucial, as is addressing post-publication issues promptly. Responsible image handling ensures visual elements accurately represent data, with any manipulation disclosed and justified. These principles collectively safeguard the ethical standards of scientific publication.

Publishing ethics in Türkiye: refers to the set of principles, regulations, and standards governing the ethical conduct of academic publishing within the Turkish academic context.

Academic Ethics: Also known as scholarly ethics or academic integrity, refers to the ethical principles and standards that guide the behavior and conduct of individuals within the academic community. This includes students, faculty, researchers, and other members of educational institutions. Academic ethics encompasses a range of principles, including honesty, integrity, respect, fairness, objectivity, responsibility, collaboration, and policy adherence.

International Organizations and Initiatives for Publishing Ethics: Refer to various global entities and efforts that aim to establish and promote ethical standards within the field of publishing. These organizations and initiatives work towards ensuring integrity, transparency, and responsible practices in the dissemination of information, particularly in academic and professional publishing.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: