Ethnic Associations and Entrepreneurship

Ethnic Associations and Entrepreneurship

Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7631-0.ch005


The chapter interrogates the peculiarities of business and marketing activities among the Black Africans' organized social spaces such as religious associations, parties, and get-togethers. This demonstrates the ability of Black African groups to adjust to a secondary range of social conditions in the UK through the adoption of social networking practices that tracks the contours of their cultures and entrepreneurial agency.
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The synthesis of beliefs and practices combined in entrepreneurial ventures creation within the context of Black Africans’ socio-cultural and religion spaces is generated in this chapter. Religion offers a unique context in terms of offering a specific social base and particular cultural expressions that could be employed to explicate Black African entrepreneurship. The combined forces of religion and ethnicity enhance the effects of dense social networks, trust, reciprocal expectations, shared values, and common religio-cultural outlook in ways that amplify and boost the social capital of a group (Kraybill, Nolt, & Wesner, 2010). A relationship exists between distinctive forms of religiosity and ethnic entrepreneurship (e.g. Rafiq, 1992; Nwankwo, Gbadamosi, & Ojo, 2012) and there is a propensity for this to be magnified in the case of minority migrant groups (e.g. Black Africans) in search of economic survival and empowerment (e.g. Ojo, 2017).

The entrepreneurial exploitation of Black Africans’ religion and socio-cultural spaces as potent sites for ethnic venture creation demonstrates the extent at which religious beliefs and customs intermingled to initiate and administer ethnic entrepreneurship are expedient within the broader prosaic of entrepreneurship field. As Pugliese (1993) suggests, new forms of creative entrepreneurship seem to be thriving particularly in an informal sector of developed economies (such as the UK). Banks et al. (2003) suggest that different opportunity structures in the country of residence (e.g. UK) could be employed to provide self-employment to immigrants (e.g. Black Africans) through participation in religion and socio-cultural production and consumption. This view is supported by Woodrum (1985) and Ojo (2015), who found that individuals’ participation in religion and their familial religiosity are positively associated with self-employment. Likewise, Honig (1998) and Ojo (2017) established that church attendance can improve business performance since social capital resulting from this activity is able to strengthen relationship and create opportunities for entrepreneurs. Accordingly, specific ethno-cultural opportunities become part of the broader creative environment incorporating socio-economic networking activities.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Religion Entrepreneurship: Refers to the interrelationship between religion and entrepreneurship that highlights the economic dimensions and implications of religion.

Pentecostalism: Refers to a form of Christianity that lays emphasis on the work of the Holy Spirit and the direct personal experience of God.

African Pentecostalism: Refers to the specific African brand of Pentecostalism that emphasizes transformation, theology of empowerment, success, and prosperity in life.

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