Evaluating the “Flipped” Face to Face Classroom and the Online Classroom in Teacher Education

Evaluating the “Flipped” Face to Face Classroom and the Online Classroom in Teacher Education

Lori Severino (Drexel University, USA) and Mary Jean Tecce DeCarlo (Drexel University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0522-8.ch011


This chapter will discuss a study that set out to determine if knowledge of the structure of language and self-efficacy of pre-service and in-service teachers was impacted by whether the course was taken in a face to face or online format. Results of the study showed there was a statistically significant change in the Teacher Knowledge Assessment: Structure of Language (TKA: SL) for participants in the online courses, but not for students taking the course face to face. To determine whether or not self-efficacy increased, the Teacher Efficacy Scale: short form (TES) was used, The TES includes two subscales: teacher efficacy and personal efficacy. Results showed no statistical significance on the overall TES score between participants; however, on the personal efficacy score, there was a statistically significant change in pre and post test scores of participants who took the course face to face.
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In the United States the majority of elementary and secondary teachers are trained through traditional four year undergraduate programs in colleges and universities (U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education, 2013). Graduate degrees are also offered for those who wish to get an additional certification or deepen skills in a particular subject area. Degrees can be earned in early childhood education, elementary education, middle school education, secondary subject specific education, arts and physical education and special education. All of these programs include general academic coursework as well as classes in educational psychology, learning theory, teaching methods, and education law. Teacher education programs also provide pre-service educators with time in the field observing and working with students in elementary and secondary schools.

Successful program completers then apply for a teaching credential from a specific state. Each state has a Board or Department of Education, which requires educators to obtain a teaching license. All fifty states have standards for elementary and secondary classroom teachers, and 44 have specific teacher standards for all levels of special education (U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education, 2013). Institutions of higher education submit plans of study to the state that demonstrate that the university coursework aligns with these standards.

Teacher education programs are now being influenced by the growth in eLearning. Some universities offer some or all of their courses online in synchronous or asynchronous formats. Even while attending on campus, students can choose to take some of their courses online. Flipped classrooms are also being incorporated into on campus programs. In a flipped classroom design, direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space (What Is Flipped Learning, 2014). Content is delivered via online lectures and learning activities and face-to-face classroom time is devoted to applied learning such as problem sets, lab activities or field experiences. In this study, the “flipped” classroom involved field experiences and hands on learning in elementary or secondary schools.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Hybrid Class: A class in which students meet face to face on occasion and also take part of the course online.

Preservice Teacher: A person who is an undergraduate student and taking courses to become a certified teacher.

In-Service Teacher: A person who has already obtained a teaching certificate and teaching in a classroom.

Online Class: For the purpose of this study, a college level class delivered completely online in an asynchronous manner.

Self- Efficacy: The belief that the individual has the ability to influence a situation and bring about a desired result.

Asynchronous: Online class time in which students watch weekly presentations and complete assignments at times that meet their schedule. Students are not necessarily online at the same time.

Synchronous: Online class time in which all students attend the session at the same time.

Flipped Class: For the purpose of this study, a class in which the instruction is delivered online and the field work is face to face with the university professor.

Face to Face Class: A class in which students meet with the professor in a brick and mortar classroom during scheduled class time.

Struggling Reader: For the purposes of this study, a struggling reader was a student aged five to 18 who was not keeping up with peers in learning to read (elementary grades) or at least two age levels behind peers (secondary level).

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