Evaluating User Experience of Actual and Imagined Movement in BCI Gaming

Evaluating User Experience of Actual and Imagined Movement in BCI Gaming

Bram van de Laar (University of Twente, The Netherlands), Boris Reuderink (University of Twente, The Netherlands), Danny Plass-Oude Bos (University of Twente, The Netherlands) and Dirk Heylen (University of Twente, The Netherlands)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0029-4.ch017
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Most research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) focuses on developing ways of expression for disabled people who are not able to communicate through other means. Recently it has been shown that BCI can also be used in games to give users a richer experience and new ways to interact with a computer or game console. This paper describes research conducted to find out what the differences are between using actual and imagined movement as modalities in a BCI game. Results show that there are significant differences in user experience and that actual movement is a more robust way of communicating through a BCI.
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A few BCI games based on imagined or actual movement do already exist. A first-person shooter game in which the user could move using the keyboard, and turn by imagined movement was designed. Players learned to control the BCI by experimenting; no instructions were given beforehand. Other examples include the virtual environments of Leeb et al. (2005) the board game of Kayagil et al. (2007) and the game BrainBasher (Oude Bos & Reuderink, 2008) that we used in this study.

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