Evaluation of Situations Causing Split of Attention in Multimedia Learning Environments via Eye-Tracking Method

Evaluation of Situations Causing Split of Attention in Multimedia Learning Environments via Eye-Tracking Method

Duygu Mutlu-Bayraktar (Istanbul University, Turkey) and Servet Bayram (Marmara University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3822-6.ch018
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Abstract

In this chapter, situations that can cause split of attention in multimedia environments were determined via eye tracking method. Fixation numbers, heat maps and area of interest of learners were analyzed. As a result of these analyses, design suggestions were determined for multimedia environments to provide focusing attention to content without split attention effect. Visual and auditory resources should be provided simultaneously. Visual information should be supported with auditory expression instead of texts. Images such as videos, pictures and texts should not be presented on the same screen. Texts provided with pictures should be presented via integration to each other instead of separate presentation of text and picture. Texts provided with videos should be presented via integration to each other instead of separate presentation of text and video. Images should be given via marking important points on images to increase attention.
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1. Introduction

In learning environments, many studies revealed that learners showed higher learning performances in the environments with audio-based animations than in static environments (Plass, Heidig, Hayward, Homer and Um, 2013; Lin, Hung and Chang, 2013; van Genuchten, Scheiter and Schüler, 2012; Kühl, Scheiter, Gerjets, & Edelmann, 2011). In the studies performed by Huff, Bauhoff and Schwan (2012), Cierniak, Scheiter and Gerjets (2009), Liu, Lai, and Chuang, (2012), they found out when text and pictures were not integrated together, applied test scores of people learning with split attention effect decreased. On the other hand, simultaneous presentation and presence of semantic harmony between them should be considered when animation and narration is used together (Širanović, 2007; Mayer, 2009).

In multimedia, presentation of texts visually rather than aurally prevents split of attention (Bayram and Mutlu-Bayraktar, 2012; Schmidt-Weigand, Kohnert and Glowalla, 2009; Seufert, Schutze and Brunken, 2009). It was highlighted that learners needed more expressive education and guidance to manage split attention situations better (Agostinho, Tindall-Ford and Roodenrys, 2013). In addition to these, it is emphasized that preparation of effective presentations in multimedia has positive effects on prevention of cognitive load, focusing of attention correctly and emotional and perceptual processes such as motivation and these effects are reflected on perception and transfer performances (Plass et al., 2013; Moreno & Park, 2010; Plass, Moreno and Brünken, 2010).

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