Exploring Calendar-Based Pattern Mining in Data Streams

Exploring Calendar-Based Pattern Mining in Data Streams

Rodrigo Salvador Monteiro (COPPE / UFRJ, Brazil), Geraldo Zimbrão (COPPE / UFRJ, Brazil), Holger Schwarz (IPVS - University of Stuttgart, Germany), Bernhard Mitschang (IPVS - University of Stuttgart, Germany) and Jano Moreira de Souza (COPPE / UFRJ, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-748-5.ch016
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Calendar-based pattern mining aims at identifying patterns on specific calendar partitions. Potential calendar partitions are for example: every Monday, every first working day of each month, every holiday. Providing flexible mining capabilities for calendar-based partitions is especially challenging in a data stream scenario. The calendar partitions of interest are not known a priori and at each point in time only a subset of the detailed data is available. The authors show how a data warehouse approach can be applied to this problem. The data warehouse that keeps track of frequent itemsets holding on different partitions of the original stream has low storage requirements. Nevertheless, it allows to derive sets of patterns that are complete and precise. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach by a series of experiments.
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Calendar-based schemas (Li, Y. et al., 2001) (Ramaswamy, S. et al., 1998) were proposed as a semantically rich representation of time intervals and used to mine temporal association rules. An example of a calendar schema is (year, month, day, day_period), which defines a set of calendar patterns, such as every morning of January of 1999 (1999, January, *, morning) or every 16th day of January of every year (*, January, 16, *). In the research field of data mining, frequent itemsets derived from transactional data represent a particularly important pattern domain due to their large applicability (Boulicaut, J., 2004). Association rule mining is the most recognized application of frequent itemsets (Agrawal, R. et al., 1993). Other examples are generalized rule mining (Mannila, H., & Toivonen, H., 1996) and associative classification (Liu, B. et al., 1998). The combination of the rich semantics of calendar-based schemas with frequent itemset mining, namely calendar-based frequent itemset mining, corresponds to the first step of various calendar-based pattern mining tasks, e.g., calendar-based association rules. An example of calendar-based association rules provided in Li, Y. et al. (2001) is that eggs and coffee are frequently sold together in morning hours. Considering the transactions at the all-day granule would probably not reveal such a rule and its implicit knowledge.

Recent applications, such as network traffic analysis, web click stream mining, power consumption measurement, sensor network data analysis, and dynamic tracing of stock fluctuation are some examples where a new kind of data arises, the so called data stream. A data stream is continuous and potentially infinite. Mining calendar-based patterns in data streams is a difficult task described in the following statement:

Problem Statement: Let D be a transactional dataset provided by a data stream. Let Χ be a set of ad-hoc calendar-based constraints and T the subset of transactions from D satisfying Χ. The frequency of an itemset I over T is the number of transactions in T in which I occurs. The support of I is the frequency divided by the total number of transactions in T. Given a minimum support σ, the set of calendar-based frequent itemsets is defined by the itemsets with support ≥ σ over the set of transactions T.

Some examples of calendar-based constraints are: weekday in {Monday, Friday}; day_period = “Morning”; holiday = “yes”; etc. The calendar partitions that will reveal interesting temporal patterns are not known a priori and at each point in time only a subset of the detailed data is available in a window based on the most recent data.

Existing approaches cannot solve the above problem because either they require all transactions to be available during the calendar-based mining task or they do not provide enough flexibility to consider a calendar-based-subset of the data stream transactions. In order to flexibly derive patterns based on calendar features in data streams, we need some kind of summary for previous time windows. As the calendar partitions that will be interesting for analysis are not known in advance, it is not obvious how to build and store such a summary.

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