Exploring the Development of Pre-Service Teachers' ICT-TPACK using a Cognitive Stimulation Tool

Exploring the Development of Pre-Service Teachers' ICT-TPACK using a Cognitive Stimulation Tool

Syh-Jong Jang (Asia University, Taiwan) and Meng-Fang Tsai (Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9634-1.ch018
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Abstract

Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills and Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) are important issues in current educational studies. Most of SRL studies have highlighted the relationship between self-regulation and academic performances. However, few existing research on the aspect of SRL is seldom applied to the research on TPACK of pre-service teachers. The purpose of this paper was to examine pre-service teachers' development of TPACK with appropriate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) using cognitive stimulation tool (CST). Pre-service teachers self-rated their ICT-TPACK at two time points, and the statistical analysis indicated significant difference. The analysis of qualitative data showed that pre-service teachers used cognitive regulation strategies to develop their understanding and application skills on ICT-TPACK and were able to use reflective practices to demonstrate their understanding of TPACK at the end of the semester. The research implications of this study and TPACK instrument development are provided along with suggestions.
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Introduction

In 2001, the meeting of educational reform held by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan stated the importance of employing innovative curriculum and information and communication technology (ICT) tools into pedagogy to increase teachers’ teaching effectiveness. Therefore, school teachers have been encouraged to adopt ICT tools and develop their literacy of technology, content, and pedagogy for their professional development and teaching effectiveness by using technological devices. Researchers have suggested Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) to be an essential concept that can unite pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and technology integration into teaching to improve teachers’ instructional effectiveness (Holmes, 2009; Jang & Chen, 2010; Niess, 2005).

Many studies have shown that self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are beneficial to individuals' learning. Most of them also have highlighted the relationship between self-regulation and academic performances (Kuo, Walker, Schroder, & Belland, 2014; McClelland, Morrison, & Holmes, 2000; Tseng, Liang, & Tsai, 2014; Winters et al., 2008). However, few existing research on the aspect of SRL is seldom inclusively discussed and applied to the research on TPACK of pre-service teachers. Therefore, in the study, the researchers used a cognitive stimulation tool designed according to the area of cognitive regulation in the SRL model proposed by Pintrich (2000), to help pre-service teachers practice activating and regulating their mental processes as they learn and apply TPACK to the final course project in their collaborative learning group.

Key Terms in this Chapter

ICT: Information and communication technology (ICT) is a general term that refers to all the uses of digital technology as well as their applications.

Self-Regulated Learning: Emphasizing autonomy and control by the individual who monitors, directs, and regulates actions towards goals of information acquisition, expanding expertise, and self-improvement.

Pre-Service Teachers: The participants taking educational courses required by the two-year teacher education program in preparing college (including graduate) students to become school teachers with different academic majors in Taiwan.

Cognitive Stimulation Tool: A cognition stimulation tool (CST) designed based on the area of cognition in the self-regulated model proposed by Pintrich (2000 , p. 454), to help pre-service teachers activate and regulate their cognition and facilitate their learning and application.

Collaborative Learning: It can serve as an effective framework to create a social environment where learners practice regulating their cognition and construct knowledge by interacting with their peers.

TPACK: Koehler and Mishra (2005) initially proposed the Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework, which contains seven elements: (1) content knowledge, (2) pedagogical knowledge, (3) technology knowledge, (4) pedagogical content knowledge, (5) technological content knowledge, (6) technological pedagogical knowledge, and (7) technological pedagogical content knowledge.

Professional Development: School teachers develop their instructional skills in relation to ICT integration, regenerate their understanding of scientific concepts, and increase their understandings of knowledge in teaching, learning and educational goals.

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