Exploring the Food Security Strategy and Scarcity Arguments in Land Grabbing in Africa: Its Ethical Implications

Exploring the Food Security Strategy and Scarcity Arguments in Land Grabbing in Africa: Its Ethical Implications

Essien D. Essien (University of Uyo, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7405-9.ch005
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Abstract

Contemporary studies surrounding the land grabbing phenomenon in Africa have revealed two findings. First, the purchase or lease of vast tracts of land from poor, developing countries by wealthier, food-insecure nations has raised deep ethical concern over food security and rural agricultural development. Second, there is the existence of a powerful myth that large-scale land deals are necessary in order to deal with scarcity. Drawing upon extensive contemporary literature on foreign land acquisition and food security, this chapter examines the phenomenon using “rent gap” theory. With an insight provided into understanding the independent layers of land grabbing in Africa, a criterion on what should constitute appropriate procedure for land acquisition is thus supplied. Findings posit that despite insufficiency of food availability in Africa, land grabbing continues regardless of its social and ecological limitations. This chapter has a significant implication for cumulative research on the subject of ethics of foreign land acquisition.
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Introduction

The convergence of contemporary global crises such as financial, environmental, energy, and food in recent years has contributed to a dramatic revaluation of the status quo, and rush to control land, particularly land located in the global South especially Africa (Borras & Franco, 2010). Despite insufficiency of food availability in Africa, the past decade has witnessed an enormous increase in large scale land acquisitions, on a permanent or long-term basis, in developing countries especially Africa for the purpose of export agriculture, biofuels production, and foresting for carbon mitigation, with acquisitions made mainly by national governments or corporations based in the wealthier, more developed countries of the world (De Schutter, 2010). This phenomenon labeled by scholars and activists as ‘land grabbing’ is certainly considered an emerging, prominent factor in the explosion of global commercial land transactions revolving around the production and sale of food, alternative energy (especially biofuels), mineral deposits and reservoirs of environmental services. (Borras, Franco & Wang, 2013).

Consequently, lands that hitherto seemed of little or no interest to the outside world are now sought by international investors from China, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, France and Germany as well as private investors from the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) to the tune of hundreds of thousands of hectares. This development directly threatens the food security and of persons in the target countries by closing off agricultural land that was previously used by small farmers or pastoralists for subsistence or domestic food production (De Schutter, 2011). In many countries such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Mali, and Sudan where food insecurity is already high, large percentages of the total arable land have been sold or leased to foreign investors (GRAIN, 2012).

It is pertinent to note that throughout history, food had been identified as a contributing factor of countless upheavals. This lends credence to the assertion that the greatest threat to our common future “is no longer conflict between heavily armed superpowers, but rather the spreading food shortages and rising food prices with its attendant political turmoil” (Bernstein, 2013: 19). Against this backdrop, many global analysts have predicted that the biggest security threats in the twenty-first century may likely center on disputes over food and water that the Earth’s dwindling water supply is able to produce. However, the emergence of this new trajectory popularly known as “land grabbing”, or “large scale land acquisition” which connotes the purchase or long term lease of vast tracts of land from mostly poor, developing countries by wealthier, food-insecure nations as well as private entities to produce food for export, has raised deep concern over food security and rural agricultural development. Agriculturally, farmland acquisition for the purpose of acquiring food is not a completely new phenomenon (Bourne, 2009). Several things about the new fashion are nonetheless new. In the past, foreign farming investment and transaction was usually private. That is, private investors bought lands from private owners. In recent time, however, majority of the new land deals are government to government or foreign investors to governments. The sellers are often times the host governments dispensing lands they technically claim ownership. The other side of the argument is the scale of acquisition (Bourne, 2009). Previously, the biggest land deal will be around 100,000 hectares as against the present day land deals which goes for several hundreds of thousands of hectares. In the same vein, unlike the older project which centered on cash crops such as coffee, tea, sugar and bananas, the current transaction typically centers attention on staples or/and biofuels such as wheat, maize, rice and beans (Castree, 2003).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Peasants: Peasants here indicate the poor smallholders of land or agricultural labourers of low social status in the society. They always engaged in subsistence farming for the immediate sustenance. In agriculture, peasants grow for their consumption and survival only. They hardly are able to produce cash crops or for commercial purposes.

Grabbing: The association between the notion of grabbing and land usually evokes a disturbing feeling because of the negative outcomes of dispossession and deprivation. Given that land is grabbed by acquirers and investors to do a whole lot of thing which have little benefit on the inhabitants, the damages produced on those who live on such lands constitute unethical behaviour that is objectionable.

Land Governance: Land governance involves a procedure, policies, processes and institutions by which land, property and other natural resources are managed. This includes decisions on access to land, land rights, land use, and land development. All countries have evolved a policy on how to deal with the management of land in their society. They have to deal with the four functions of land tenure, land value, land use, and land development in some way or another. In every society, sound land governance is the key toward the achievement of sustainable development.

Investors: An investor is a person who allocates capital for investment in lands with the expectation of making profit. In this regard, agricultural investments involve acquiring large span of land for agricultural investments. This involves the foreign land acquirers who acquire large hectares of land for investment purposes.

Arable Land: Arable Land connotes land that can be used effectively for the growing of crops. In this case, abandoned land resulting in shifting cultivation is not included in arable land category. Instead of affecting marginal lands, land grabbing affects arable lands which are affecting the availability of arable land for cultivation in Africa, hence food insecurity.

Land Rights: This refers to the rights in which individuals or groups have in the society which enable them use and exclude others from making use of the land that belongs to them. These rights are bestowed on them by nature, inheritance, culture and law.

Good Governance: Governance refers to the manner in which power is exercised by governments in managing a country’s natural resources especially land. It simply means: the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented concerning the management of resources such as land. The concept of governance includes formal as well as informal actors involved in decision-making and implementation of decisions made, and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.

Food Crisis: Food crisis usually produces widespread scarcity of food in a society. It is usually caused by numerous factors such as crop failure, population explosion, government policies, and inaction in terms of food production. Food crisis usually results in hunger, starvation and malnutrition in the society. Food crisis is therefore the major driver of land rush and acquisition in Africa.

Ancestral Lands: Ancestral land refers to lands belonging to an indigenous cultural people or community. This includes the continuous and open possession and occupation of the said indigenous people or community and its members whose right to such lands shall be protected to ensure non encroachment.

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