Exploring the Potential of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Biosensing

Exploring the Potential of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Biosensing

Radhika R. Jaswal, Kanica Kaushal, Shubhi Joshi, Pratibha Sharma, Shweta Sharma, Simran Preet, Avneet Saini
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0307-2.ch003
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Biosensors are devices that capture the biological signal and convert it into a detectable electrical signal through transduction. Biological entities like DNA, RNA, and proteins/enzymes can be conjugated onto the biosensor surface to detect and observe certain biological analytes in environment, biomedical, and food industries. Peptides have been efficiently used in the fabrication of peptide-based biosensors due to their attractive properties like established synthesis protocols, diverse structures, and as highly enzyme-selective substrates. However, owing to their labile nature, peptidomimetics are the best alternatives at the bioreceptor interface due to their specificity and stability, relatively low cost and easy modifications, and capability to form supramolecular assemblies like nanosheets. Such bioconjugation strategies efficiently convert interaction information into a measurable signal, thus highlighting the importance in the fabrication of next-generation novel robust biosensors desirable for detection and dissemination of pathogens causing infections in the living and non-living worlds.
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Biosensors: A General Overview

The word “sensor” is derived from the Latin word “sentire” which basically means ‘to identify’ anything. In terms of classification, physical sensors and chemical sensors are the two most primary and widely opted classes of sensors. Biosensors, an amalgam of physical and chemical sensing method, are the most recent type of sensors in a way that these have been recognized by only some eighteen years prior to today (Buenger et al., 2012). Basically, biosensors are receptor-transducer based devices which interpret some specific biophysical or biochemical property of the medium. Furthermore, the most interesting quality that sets them apart is the presence of biological/organic recognition element which enables the detection of particular biological molecules in the medium (Wang, 2006).

i. Major Breakthrough in the Development of the Biosensors

Ever since the development of the first biosensor as a potentiometric enzyme based electrode that was invented for the detection and measurement of glucose in any medium (Clark and Lyons, 1962) the major focus has remained on reducing the size and making the laboratories economically stable towards the development of portable, small-sized/nanosized and multi-functional biosensors (Chao et al., 2016). The bioelement is principally any organic body which is able to detect any particular analyte from the medium of interest while remaining irresponsive towards any other potentially interfering species whereas sensing element consists of the signal transducing portion of the biosensor which could be in the form of any magnetic, optical, electrical or electrochemical etc. transducing mechanism (Vidal, 2013). Elaboration of these two components is given in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Schematic representation of different parts of a biosensor


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