Factors of Political Development of Russia From the 10th to the 18th Centuries

Factors of Political Development of Russia From the 10th to the 18th Centuries

Bogdan Ershov (Voronezh State Technical University, Russia) and Natalia Muhina (Voronezh State Technical University, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9985-2.ch001

Abstract

The chapter deals with the formation and development of Russian statehood from the 10th to the 18th centuries. It was at this time that domestic statehood was formed in very peculiar conditions. The following factors greatly influenced the specifics of Russian statehood: peasant, national, geopolitical, modernization. Throughout its history, Russia has gone through five major periods of state development: the Old Russian state, Muscovy, the Russian Empire, the Soviet state, and the Russian Federation. The process of Russian statehood was birthed in the ancient Russian state, which arose in the middle of the 9th century with its center in Kiev and existed until the middle of the 15th century. This period was marked by the approval of the basic principles of statehood in Russia, the merging of its northern and southern centers, and the growth of the military-political and international influence of the state.
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The Beginning Of The Formation Of The Russian State

The process of Russian statehood began in the Old Russian state, which arose in the middle of the 9th century with its center in Kiev and existed until the middle of the 15th century. The spiritual father and founder of the Old Russian state was destined to become Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovich, called the Red Sun. Under him in 988, Russia adopted Orthodoxy as the state religion. This period was marked by the approval of the basic principles of statehood in Russia, the merging of its northern and southern centers, and the growth of the military-political and international influence of the state.

With the advent of Yaroslav Vladimirovich (the Wise) to power in 1019, the state reached a high level of development. This was facilitated by the victory over the Pechenegs, which was gained in 1036, and the far-sighted policy, during which the first set of laws “Russkaya Pravda” appeared, the church reform took place, and the main forces were directed to the establishment of trade relations.

The sons of Yaroslav, having failed to resolve the issue of inheriting power after his death, plunged the country into a state of fragmentation for a long time, aggravated by the invasion of the Polovtsian menace. In 1068, the brothers suffered their first defeat in the war with the nomads, soon after which an uprising broke out in Kiev.

The problem of internecine conflicts was briefly resolved with the advent of Vladimir Monomakh in 1113. The talented ruler managed to suppress numerous rebellions and to win a number of victories over the Polovtsy. Much was done to consolidate the power of the prince and alleviate the heavy burden of the peasants. The course adopted by Vladimir Monomakh was continued under the rule of his son Mstislav the Great. The successful, but short-lived rule of Mstislav Vladimirovich ended in 1132, after which the country was again divided into principalities (Ershov, 2017).

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