Feature Selection Algorithms for Classification and Clustering

Feature Selection Algorithms for Classification and Clustering

Arvind Kumar Tiwari (GGS College of Modern Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2460-2.ch022

Abstract

Feature selection is an important topic in data mining, especially for high dimensional dataset. Feature selection is a process commonly used in machine learning, wherein subsets of the features available from the data are selected for application of learning algorithm. The best subset contains the least number of dimensions that most contribute to accuracy. Feature selection methods can be decomposed into three main classes, one is filter method, another one is wrapper method and third one is embedded method. This chapter presents an empirical comparison of feature selection methods and its algorithm. In view of the substantial number of existing feature selection algorithms, the need arises to count on criteria that enable to adequately decide which algorithm to use in certain situation. This chapter reviews several fundamental algorithms found in the literature and assess their performance in a controlled scenario.
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Introduction

The feature selection problem is inescapable in inductive machine learning or data mining setting and its significance is beyond doubt. The main benefit of a correct selection is the terms of learning speed, speculation capacity or simplicity of the induced model. On the other hand there are the straight benefits related with a smaller number of features: a reduced measurement cost and hopefully a better understanding of the domain. A feature selection algorithm (FSA) is a computational solution that should be guided by a certain definition of subset relevance although in many cases this definition is implicit or followed in a loose sense. This is so because, from the inductive learning perspective, the relevance of a feature may have several definitions depending on precise objective (Caruana and Freitag, 1994). Thus the need arises to count on common sense criteria that enable to adequately decide which algorithm to use or not to use in certain situation (Belanche and González, 2011). The feature selection algorithm can be classified according to the kind of output one are giving a (weighed) linear order of features and second are giving a subset of the original features. In this research, several fundamental algorithms found in the literature are studied to assess their performance in a controlled scenario. This measure computes the degree of matching between the output given by a FSA and the known optimal solution. Sample size effect also studied. The result illustrates the strong dependence on the particular conditions of the FSA used and on the amount of irrelevance and redundancies in the data set description, relative to the total number of feature. This should prevent the use of single algorithm even when there is poor knowledge available about the structure of the solution. The basic idea in feature selection is to detect irrelevant and/or redundant features as they harm the learning algorithm performance (Lee and Moore, 2014). There is no unique definition of relevance, however it has to do with the discriminating ability of a feature or a subset to distinguish the different class labels (Dash and Liu, 1997). However, as pointed out in the paper (Guyon and Elisseeff, 2003a), an irrelevant variable may be useful when taken with others and even two irrelevant variables that are useless by themselves can be useful when taken together.

Figure 1.

Feature selection criteria

978-1-7998-2460-2.ch022.f01

The Feature Selection Problem

Let X be the original set of features which cardinality |X|=n. The continuous feature selection problem (also called feature weighing) refers to the assignment of weights wi to each feature xiX in such a way that the order corresponding to its theoretical relevance is preserved. The binary feature selection problem (also called feature subset selection) refers to the choice of a subset of feature that jointly maximizes a certain measure related to subset relevance. This can be carried out directly as many FSA (Almuallim and Dietterich, 1991: Caruana and Freitag, 1994) or setting a cut point in the output of this continuous problem solution. Although both types can be seen in a unified way (the latter case corresponds to the assignment of weights in {0, 1}), these are quite different problems that reflect different design objectives. In the continuous case, one is interested in keeping all the features but in using them differentially in the learning process. On the contrary in the binary case one is interested in keeping just a subset of the features and (most likely) using them equally in the learning process.

A common instance of the feature selection problem can be formally stated as follows. Let J be a performance evaluation measure to be optimized (say to maximize) defined as 978-1-7998-2460-2.ch022.m01. This function accounts for a general evaluation measure that may or may not be inspired in a precise and previous definition of relevance. Let C(x)≥0 represent the cost of variable x and call 978-1-7998-2460-2.ch022.m02 for 978-1-7998-2460-2.ch022.m03. Let Cx=C(X) be the cost of the whole feature set. It is assumed here that c is additive, that is, 978-1-7998-2460-2.ch022.m04 (Belanche and González, 2011).

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