Female Entrepreneurship and Marine Tourism: Innovative Practices on the Coastline

Female Entrepreneurship and Marine Tourism: Innovative Practices on the Coastline

Iria Caamaño-Franco (Universidade da Coruña, Spain), Antonia Pérez-García (Universidade da Coruña, Spain) and María Andrade-Suárez (Universidade da Coruña, Spain)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4855-4.ch010
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Abstract

Marine tourism activities represent an innovative proposal that, responding to the diversification needs of the professional fishing activity, provides a new alternative tourism product. The aim of this chapter is to analyse women's entrepreneurship in the frame of marine tourism as an innovative and territorial development dynamics that collaborate with other sectors (fishing-tourism, gastronomy, canning) promoting in turn a sustainable economy based on blue growth and development of endogenous resources. This exploratory and descriptive research intends to increase the tourist work carried out by women in coastal areas more and more public, highlighting and dignifying their role within the sector, as well as their contribution to tourism innovation and social and economic development. In order to meet the objectives, some secondary information with qualitative-quantitative data has been collected and primary information through a qualitative study by means of in-depth interviews to 10 entrepreneur women in the tourism field in Galicia (Spain).
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Introduction

The evolution of socio-economic, political and environmental conditions is affecting the fishing activity in the European Union and, in Spain, they have generated a profound crisis situation in the sector (Molina, González and García, 2010). Diversification strategies are thus urgently needed in coastal areas whose economic driving force is fisheries. They are seeking to improve living conditions and strengthen local economies by providing them with complementary sources of income (Farnet, 2011). According to this, it is necessary to promote activities that contribute to the socio-economic dynamization of coastal areas in an integral way through the realization of projects that promote synergies between the fisheries sector, tourism and the use of local resources (coastal tourism activities, marine tourism, cruise tourism, culinary heritage, use of fishery by products, etc.). In this way, the search for alternatives that guarantee the survival of artisanal fishing with great roots in coastal populations, and with the necessary economic, social and environmental sustainability, is being encouraged.

Marine tourism activities represent an innovative proposal that, responding to the diversification needs of the professional fishing activity, provide a new alternative tourism product increasingly demanded by the market that can become a valuable example of revitalization and sustainable coastal development (Sagittal Project, 2007). In order to achieve this goal, this model of local development considers it essential and necessary that economic, social and institutional local agents intervene in the diversification process. Thus, they create a system of productive, commercial, cultural and institutional relations whose density and innovative character benefit the processes of growth and change (Vázquez and Rodríguez, 2015). Consequently, entrepreneurship has become a key option for economic incentive, rural development and even equal opportunities programmes.

In this scenario, the Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs), responsible for managing a European programme in the area, aim at the implementation of a bottom-up strategy of axis 4 of the European Fisheries Fund for the promotion of the sustainable development of fishing areas and play a key role in supporting women's entrepreneurship initiative (Martínez García, 2017). Therefore, many of the initiatives promoted by fisheries professionals are developed, which demonstrate a great dynamic capacity as promoters of innovative projects through which they respond to the demands of the sector and to its own ones as a collective (Spanish Network of Women in the Fisheries Sector, REMSP, 2017).

Due to these considerations, nowadays social tourism undertaking, which is focused on recognizing opportunities to achieve the creation of a social mission that is sustainable over time (Moreira and Urriolagoitia, 2011), have become increasingly important. However, the study about its impact is still absent in literature (Power, et al., 2017; Mottiara et al., 2018), in particular, the nature of the personal and environmental factors that influence this process (Wang et al., 2019). In addition, the way in which gender impacts on entrepreneurship of women working in rural areas has received hardly attention (Forsberg and Lindgren, 2015) so researching in this field also becomes particularly important (Ortiz García, 2017).

Bearing the tourist female entrepreneurship in the countryside in mind, particularly in coastal fishing areas, the aim of this paper is to analyse women's entrepreneurship in the frame of marine tourism as an innovative and territorial development dynamics that collaborate with other sectors (fishing-tourism, gastronomy, canning...) promoting in turn a sustainable economy based on blue growth and development of endogenous resources, in this case, of Galicia’s coastal regions.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Blue Economy: In economics it is a term which encourages better stewardship, exploitation and preservation of our marine environment.

Sustainopreneurship: Is a business model which aims to solve problems related to social and sustainability agenda.

REMSP: Spanish Network of Women in the Fisheries Sector which promoting communication and the exchange of initiatives and best practices among professionals working in fishing and aquaculture activities, in any of its different areas, promoting their entrepreneurship and associationism, as well as their empowerment and leadership.

ANMUPESCA: National Association of Women in Fisheries in Spain it is a non-profit entity established in 2016 that brings together more than 10,000 women linked to the world of the sea from all over the national territory in the association.

EMFF: European Maritime and Fisheries Funds is the fund for the EU's maritime and fisheries policies for 2014-2020. It is one of five European Structural and Investment (ESI) Funds which together, promote a growth and job-based recovery in Europe.

Marine Tourism: Segment that uses activities that involve the enhancement of the maritime culture.

Flags: Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs), responsible for managing a European program in the area.

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