Framework Blockchain Education: Rupture in Higher Education

Framework Blockchain Education: Rupture in Higher Education

Dênia Falcão de Bittencourt (Inova Práticas Educacionais, Brazil), Adriano Rogério Goedert (GRG Consultoria e Assessoria, Brazil), Ramesh C. Sharma (Ambedkar University, New Delhi, India) and Flávio Bortolozzi (UniCesumar, Brazil)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9478-9.ch004


We live in a dynamic and evolutionary world. Concepts such as internet of things, blockchain, convergence, transformations, disruptions, robotics, artificial intelligence, and learning analytics are increasingly becoming part of our lives. In the present chapter, the authors call attention to the higher education sector, which needs to go beyond the pedagogical and material limits in order to give to the student the protagonism of his/her life story. Rupture means to abstract the methods and models for living together in an environment of strong interactions and relationships, whose transactional cost becomes evident. Thus, this chapter presents a framework, which the authors titled framework blockchain education, in an ecosystem of changes, feeds, analyses, diagnostics, and intelligence, which contributes to the formation of the student according to his/her expectations, that is, to contribute in an effective manner in his/her achievement, while offering a sustainable education.
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BlockChain learning combined with Big Data, analytical learning and machine learning can reverse the operations of institution and student. The transformative impact of blockchain is already being noticed across various sectors, including education, since it was first proposed in October 2008 (Sharma, 2018a).

This essay is the result of critical observation on how the evolution of educational models will happen, by means of the Blockchain learning technology, while asking what are the possible reflections and opportunities for educational institutions and professionals.

The integration and utilisation of information and communication technology (ICT) has been widely acknowledged (Kumar, Sharma & Vyas, 2003). The present global context of education has promoted an ample debate on the emerging technologies and their potential for stimulating a large transformation in the traditional models of educational institutions, as we know them today. For example, when creating a course, why one is not allowed to select teachers and experiences from more than one educational institution, after analyzing their competences, which can be improved by means of a network of Institutions, which are part in the Blockchain System.

To face the obstacles that complicate the confirmation of cross-border certifications, which now include “cryptographies” and registration of transactions, thus blocking the learning technology, there is the potential tool of having access to registrations from different teachers and institutions all around the world; it will not be necessary anymore to attend a whole course at one only institution. By means of intelligent contracts, one can generate information for machine learning in an integrated mode that makes it possible to put the student in charge of the learning process or, if generating in Machine Learning is necessary, to offer an adaptive path for new interactions.

For instance, the student, according to an analysis recommended by the analytics systems, can create a course. By identifying his/her needs, directing learning and its records as a guide, he/she can make transactions with any environment, and transit in multiple learning spaces. Since Blockchain assures reliability in the certification, transactions of gratification with crypto-coins and other forms of recognition, new interactions and transactions without frontier will appear in the Education scene. The process of total reliability in certifications is given in blocks, a sequential chain of immutable records. A block can have files, transactions or any other chosen data that, when linked, are called hashes.

Reliability of the certification is a value in itself, but the goal here is to reflect on how much such value of transformation can be increased – its transactional cost – thus generating a paradigm break. If strategically planned, and combined with other artificial intelligence technologies, it might be even possible to completely invert the current model of institutions that concentrate many students, considering that with Blockchain Learning it is possible for a student to include a number of learning institutions in his/her portfolio. With Blockchain a student can combine and give reliability to all his certificates, merits and experience, by means of transactions and certifications in the accreditation system. The technological revolution we now experience brings increasingly faster new concepts, adjustments and needs, thus causing ruptures in certain existing ecosystems.


Theoretical Framework

In some areas, technological revolutions are fast. Today, one talks about Industry 4.0. In the educational field, however, in some cases we are still in Education 1.0, as in the traditional face-to-face modality, based on traditional methodologies in the teaching-learning process, centered only on the role of the teacher as the main actor in the formation of the student. Distance education, with strategies mainly based on the use of the Internet, would be Education 2.0. Currently, there is Education 3.0, with hybrid or mixed courses, which mix face-to-face and at a distance modes, the Blended Learning. Thus, in order to progress towards Education 4.0, it is important to discuss the technological tools and platforms available.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Adaptive Learning: Adjusting to the learning based upon classroom variables either due to teaching or learning styles.

Industry 4.0: The phase of industrialisation where modern technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, Artificial Intelligence, 3D printing, Blockchain, etc. play a significant role towards automation and information processing.

Blended Learning: The mode of learning in which students learn through face to face traditional mode as well as electronic mode.

Machine Learning: An application of artificial intelligence whereby a machine develops the ability to learn without specific coding to do so.

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