From Resource to Outcome: Addressing the Barriers of Healthcare Policy Implementation

From Resource to Outcome: Addressing the Barriers of Healthcare Policy Implementation

Khadijeh (Roya) Rouzbehani (University of Victoria, Canada) and Mehdi Araghi (University of Ottawa, Canada)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8960-1.ch027
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Governments often create policies that rely on implementation by arm's length organizations and require practice changes on the part of different segments of the healthcare system without understanding the differences in and complexities of these agencies. This research describes components of a health system and explains how they affect outcomes. It argues that implemented policies affect various components of a health system in terms of service delivery, workforce, information, financing, medical products, technologies, leadership, and governance. Using health system as framework of analysis, the chapter explains that the outcome of health policy implementation determines the availability, quality, and equability of program service delivery. The chapter further argues that policy implementation barriers affect the poor and vulnerable groups from benefiting from public spending on public health policies and programs.
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Conceptual Elaboration

Health System

Health system comprises all organizations, institutions and resources that are devoted to producing health actions. Health actions in this context refers to any efforts, whether in personal healthcare, public health services or through intersectional initiatives whose primary purpose is to improve health. It is an open system with three components of input, processes and outputs. Inputs required in a healthcare system include; finance, physical structure, equipment personnel and clients. The process refers to a series of activities that transform inputs (resources) into a desired product, service or output. The term output is used to describe the direct result of the interaction of inputs and processes in the system, the types of and quantities of goods and services produced by any activity, program or project. On the other hand, the term outcome refers to the result of the outputs, the effects or impacts.

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