From Security Matter to Economic Recovery and Stability

From Security Matter to Economic Recovery and Stability

Ümit Hacıoğlu (Beykent University, Turkey) and Hasan Dinçer (Beykent University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4639-1.ch012
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In the Balkans, interethnic peace sustained by international participation has been prone to disappear as security problems are associated with unstable economic conditions of the new emerging states. Moreover, the new collective presidency system with unclear boundaries of power sharing for these countries in transition also contributes to unstable political conditions. The global economic crisis, higher unemployment rates, and budgeting problems are some economic-based issues. In the Balkans, sustaining long-term interethnic security is to be traced to a number of complex factors. The last decade reveals the importance of sustaining interethnic security among conflicting parties by maintaining common economic interest rather than solitary military measures. This chapter illustrates the contributory role of economic recovery in sustaining long-term interethnic peace. It is also aimed to illustrate the link between economic recovery and interethnic security.
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In the Balkans sustaining long term interethnic security is to be traced to a number of complex factors. Following the end of turmoil in the Balkans, the last decade reveals the importance of sustaining interethnic security among conflicting parties by maintaining common economic interest rather than solitary military measures. On the other hand, the importance of deterrence power of military presence should not be neglected in the Balkans. Military measures and strategies are vital parts of keeping peace and security in post- conflict environment. Bosnian and Kosovo tragedies were ended by international solidarity and humanitarian intervention. However, maintaining security in the conflicting areas by belated military strategies was ageing and tiring for victims of the war. Belated arrival of strong military operations, imposing economic and arms embargo provoked genocide (Holbrooke, 1998; Yenigün, Hacıoğlu, 2004:186; Hacıoğlu, 2008: 189-210). However, belated military measures were vital instruments to end tragedies but could not make sure of sustaining long term peace and security as conflicting parties still debating on territorial issues, displaced people, use of economic resources, and judgment of war fugitives. Hence, international community must contribute and facilitate initially peace progress by mediating unresolved issues and maintaining common interest among conflicting parties. Paul Collier in this issue stresses economic policy priorities in post-conflict societies. According to him, in order to sustain long term security in post conflict environment, conflicting parties need to reduce the underlying risks of conflict involving the same policies which are appropriate for conflict prevention, such as diversification and poverty reduction (Collier, 1999: 13).

Common interest also composes of both social and economic agendas including sustaining improvement in health, education and culture, righteous judgment of fugitives, compensating war crimes, functionalizing open market principles, encouraging FDIs, mediating territorial disputes and sustaining transparency. Therefore, in post-conflict environment, old security strategy including military measures taken by international community must be converted into the New Transforming Security Strategy (NTSS). NTSS is mainly focusing on economic bases which can only be capable of maintaining appropriate common interest among former conflicting parties in conflict prevention.

The concept of Security must be evaluated in terms of two different dimensions: National Security and Interethnic Security. National Security is vital for a nation state which is clearly unified and one dominant nation is sovereign enhancing minorities such as Turkey, Greece and Germany. (2) Interethnic Security is vital for collective constitutional system in which constituent states compose of multiethnic groups and diversities such as Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Apart from the negative effects of Globalization process on National Security, the Civil war in Yugoslavia examined the boundaries of sovereignty and the ways of sustaining security. Global communication and the effects of independent media groups, NGOs, social pressure groups urged international community to consider seriously what was happening in Bosnia and Kosovo. Hence, International participation intervened into conflict, kept the peace, maintained and sustained security among conflicting parties by military measures. On the contrary, the prevalence of humanitarian intervention brought new questions on the issue of sovereignty of a nation state and sustaining security.

Humanitarian intervention is one of the primary international security problems of today (Fixdal and Smith, 1998: 283). Despite the challenging controversies, the conditions of post-conflict environment could not be managed by global actors and NGOs. According to Crisis Prevention and Recovery Report, Post- Conflict Economic Recovery requires not only sustained economic growth, but also reduction of the risk of conflict recurring. Therefore sustainable growth must be accompanied by employment expansion (UN, 2008: 24). However, official unemployment rate in BH throughout the past decade was exceeding 40 percent. The World Bank Office in Bosnia announced that social expenditure in BiH, one of the highest in Europe as percentage of GDP, reaches only 30 percent of those most in need in BiH, one of the lowest rates in Europe( According to Report it is critical to sustain recovery efforts primarily promoting policies that attract private sector investment as well as the return of skilled workers (UN, 2008: 24).

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