Future Policy Implementation: A Case Study Optimization of Recreational Activities at the Vodno Mountain

Future Policy Implementation: A Case Study Optimization of Recreational Activities at the Vodno Mountain

Marjan Gusev (Innovation DOOEL Skopje, Macedonia & University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Macedonia), Biljana Veselinovska (Innovation DOOEL Skopje, Macedonia), Ana Guseva (Innovation DOOEL Skopje, Macedonia) and Branko Gjurovikj (Innovation DOOEL Skopje, Macedonia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6236-0.ch016
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This chapter presents an optimization model intended to support the policy design regarding the scheduling of different recreational activities at the Vodno Mountain. It is aimed to explore barriers and facilitators in order to measure this mountain's recreation and amenity values, while preserving the natural environment, minimizing noise pollution and criminal activity, and avoiding conflicts as much as possible. The final goal is to achieve the undertaking of different recreational activities in such a manner that they do not interfere with each other. Optimization functions are defined as an input to a simulation model, which will be developed in the future. In addition, citizens are included in the process of policy decision making by creating social media surveys and gathering online public opinion. Thus, citizens would also understand how and why certain decisions and laws for the recreational use of Vodno will be imposed.
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2. Background

According to the normative for the needed quantum of green areas which satisfy the environmental demands, approximately 120m2 are needed per citizen, or, for the entire city of Skopje with 500.000 citizens at least 6000ha of green areas are needed in the very city as well as in its immediate surroundings (PEPG, 2013). With reforestation and though other types of green areas various environmental effect are achieved. The so-called polyvalent functions are considered the most important forest functions. In other words, this is actually a term explaining the influence on the general improvement of the environment, soil protection, regulation of the water regime, air filtering and others.

The forest balances the water quantity. On bare land slopes, after intensive rains the water flow can be up to 80% of the fallen rain. On grasslands, the flow has an index of 0,6. On a terrain covered with a complete forest canopy cover, the flow has a maximum of 0,25. On bare lands, the water is mechanically polluted with great amounts of silt originated by the soil erosion processes. On forested areas there is virtually no silt in the water. Especially important is the influence of the forest on the flood peaks with the prolongation of the flow timing on the hydrogram, which decreases its peak. The forest is an effective sound buffer, it influences the decrease of noise, it decreases the temperature amplitudes in the air and soil, it influences the absolute and relative humidity of the air. According to scientific literature, the refreshment effect of one tree is equivalent to ten air-conditioners. The green areas, in regard of different tree species, release active gaseous materials, which decrease the number of bacteria per m3 in the air, up to 250 times regarding the air in the cities. The sanitary importance of the forest also influences the oxygen ionization. One m3 forest air contains between 2000 and 2500 light negative ions oxygen, the same atmosphere without the forest influence has approximately 1000, and in confined spaces it contains between 25 and 100 heavy negative ions (PEPG, 2013).

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