G-20 Countries

G-20 Countries

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2756-5.ch004
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Abstract

This chapter applies the ? model to the G-20 countries. The model suggests that the group is not homogenous. Some G-20 countries are economically efficient, while others are not. The jurisdictional footprints of these countries help explain the efficiency differences. The chapter introduces an evolutionary construct, the Red Queen Effect (RQE) to further explain the evolutionary stability of the world-system. The chapter also provides a brief analysis of the efficiency relativities of European countries.
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Introduction

The ψ model reveals important differences in the economic performance of the countries of the Group of Twenty (G-20). While the group was officially formed in 1999, the Group’s performance is analyzed based on member states’ level of economic efficiency from 1990.1Table 1 provides a snapshot of the scores at the beginning and at the end of the observation period.2

Table 1.
The G-20 countries divided into two groups of sources and sinks
G-20 Sink CountriesG-20 Source Countries
Countryψ
1990
ψ
2015
DifferenceCountryψ
1990
ψ
2015
Difference
China(4.94)0.075.01Argentina(3.22)(1.57)1.65
France4.022.42(1.60)Australia(2.99)(3.05)(0.06)
Germany3.212.97(0.24)Brazil(3.09)(1.60)1.49
Italy1.622.340.72Canada(2.49)(2.75)(0.26)
Japan3.422.88(0.54)India(4.50)(1.54)2.96
Mexico(2.05)0.292.34Indonesia(3.82)(1.27)2.55
South Korea(0.11)2.772.88Russia(0.52)(2.74)(3.26)
Turkey(2.51)0.713.22Saudi Arabia(2.11)(0.66)1.45
United Kingdom2.302.890.59South Africa(2.26)(0.67)1.59
United States2.281.91(0.37)

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