Gamification for Stakeholders in the Product Life Cycle: Holonic Platform With Kansei Engineering

Gamification for Stakeholders in the Product Life Cycle: Holonic Platform With Kansei Engineering

Antonio Córdoba-Roldán, María Jesús Ávila-Gutiérrez, Susana Suarez-Fernandez de Miranda, Francisco Aguayo-González
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-4291-3.ch007
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This chapter proposes a framework to develop a gamification platform for the activities, processes, and tasks executed by the stakeholders who participate in each stage of life cycle engineering (LCE). For this purpose, a review is made of the most significant aspects of gamification for its application in the LCE of the product. The stakeholders in the LCE must be known and classified to make a gaming experience. It is proposed to establish the relationship between the gameful and playful experiences expected by the stakeholders and the game design elements that allow the introduction of attractive game mechanics in the phases of the product design process. For this goal, it is proposed to gamify through a Kansei Engineering System. This methodology allows incorporating all the potential of the digital and organizational facilitators of Industry 4.0 and developing a cyber-physical holonic platform for the gamification of the LCE.
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Over the last decade, interest in gamification, its principles and the benefits derived from its application in contexts as diverse as education, business and social marketing, management, and others, has grown (Marcão et al., 2017; Mitchell et al., 2016). Gamification is described as the process of adding mechanical elements and principles of games and video games in non-playful scenarios. Gamification can enhance the creation of positive emotions, motivate, improve cognitive skills, create personal bonds and relationships, increase the sense of achievement, reduce stress and enhance engagement (Deterding et al., 2011; Granic et al., 2013).

A variety of authors propose principles of play in non-playful contexts among which the most representative are the following (Dicheva et al., 2015; Erenli, 2013; Kapp, 2012): achievement of goals and objectives, creation of rules and game mechanics, feedback, rewards, motivation and freedom of choice, facilitating engagement, raising success metrics.

The concept of gamification was originated by video game designer Nick Pelling in 2002 when he had to design an interface for ATM and vending machines using game mechanics (Christians, 2018). The interest in gamification goes hand in hand with the development of video games and the increase of gamers, with more users familiar with gamified game types, mechanics, dynamics and experiences.

Regarding the video games sector, the Entertainment Software Association (ESA) (Entertainment Software Association, 2017, 2020), states that young people who have not yet entered the world of work spend most of their time playing video games. It is essential to understand why people spend part of their time playing video games and what the game provides them with in their daily lives, as these same motivations can be extrapolated to a non-game context with similar objectives (Lee & Fonseca, 2021). From the point of view of the gamified experience, the ESA (2020) states that 80% of gamers experience mental stimulation as well as relaxation and stress relief (79%). Gamers express that video games help connect people, 65% of gamers share their gaming experience with other gamers online or in person, and 55% of gamers state that video games help them connect with people and friends. On the other hand, 63% think that video games have a big impact on their problem-solving skills.

It is important to know the behavioral trends as introducing gaming experiences in professional contexts today can have a greater acceptance among the agents that are part of a project, regardless of the benefits that can be obtained.

In terms of the incorporation of gamification in the field of business and social marketing, its objectives are to create states of engagement mainly in digital environments and to establish metrics and indicators for the evaluation of use, improve the quality of interaction and establish the level of commitment (Sarkum, 2018). For its application, it is proposed to establish three types of engagement related to a product design project:

  • Customer Engagement: commitment and interaction dynamics of a customer towards a company throughout the Product Design Process (PDP).

  • Employee Engagement: commitment in human and work terms that an employee has with the company to which he/she belongs.

  • User Engagement: commitment and interaction dynamics of a user with a product or service throughout the Product Life Cycle (PLC), mainly in the use phase. It also considers interaction with the brand through communication channels other than the product.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Product Life Cycle (PLC): Are all the stages necessary to develop a product or system from its inception through engineering, design and manufacturing, as well as service and disposal of the product. The product design process (PDP) is contained in the first phase of the PLC.

Experience: It is a form of knowledge or skill derived from observation, from the participation of an event.

Life Cycle Engineering (LCE): Is a sustainability-oriented engineering methodology that analyzes the ecological, economic, technical, and social impacts throughout the product life cycle.

Holon: The term Holon is a combination of the word Holos-, which means whole and the suffix -on, which means particle or part. A Holon is an identifiable part of one or more systems and is, at the same time, a system formed by subordinate parts that integrates it as a whole.

Cyber-Physical System (CPS): Are networks of computer elements that work in conjunction to control a physical process. The structure of a CPS is composed of a real and a virtual part and aims to unite conventional technologies with ICT, so that humans, machines and products can communicate with each other, and the physical elements can be virtualized.

Kansei Engineering (KE): User-centered product design and development methodology. The methodology translates the user's psychological feelings and needs into the domain of product design using numerical and statistical methods.

Stakeholder: Refers to all those people or organizations affected by the activities and decisions of a company project.

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