Gender and Victimization: A Global Analysis of Vulnerability

Gender and Victimization: A Global Analysis of Vulnerability

Oluwagbemiga Ezekiel Adeyemi (Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1112-1.ch007

Abstract

Studies on victimization are on gender differences with limited emphasis on the vulnerability of the victims. The chapter therefore examines the gender differences and vulnerability of victims around the world. The theoretical orientation of this chapter was based on the feminist theory and lifestyle routine-activities theory. Data for this study were obtained from secondary data and reviewed literature. The study established gender variation in victimization in different regions with respect to types of crimes. Individuals and contextual factors responsible for the gender differentials in the level of victimization were identified. The chapter suggests a useful policy that directs learning toward a more encircling rationalization of violence that incorporates both general and crime-specific factors based on gender differences.
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Introduction

The major concern recently on the research of victimization is the gender differences in the vulnerability of the victims. While males make–up the larger proportion of the crime victims, females account for considerable shares of both offenders and victims (Selmini&McElrath, 2014).At the individual level, victimization is common among young unmarried males with low self-esteem and who have been victimized in the past(Truman, & Langton, 2014, Holtfreter, Reisig, & Pratt, 2008). Males are likely to involve in risky lifestyles such as stealing, getting drunk in public places, selling drugs and hanging out with friends who are criminally minded. This makes victimization to be highly concentrated within the adolescent (Truman, & Langton, 2014). Risky behaviour and delinquent are more among the adolescent, as they spent much of their hours with peers outside homes. It was also believed that perceptions of victimization vary depending on the dimension and whose report is being considered. For example, Makepeace (1986) argued that females normally reported a serious crime of violence done to them, being the principal victim and sustaining sexual assault, physical injury, and emotional trauma while males rarely reported sexual assault. The risks of victimization are also distributed by social structure and the highest rates of victimization are suffered by those with low status, little power, and limited economic resources.

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