Girls' Child Education Challenges and Solutions in MENA Countries: Case Study of Tunisia

Girls' Child Education Challenges and Solutions in MENA Countries: Case Study of Tunisia

Nadia Mansour Bouzaida (University of Sousse, Tunisia & University of Salamanca, Spain) and Mohammed El Amine Abdelli (University of Zaragoza, Spain & University of Salamanca, Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2372-8.ch010

Abstract

Worldwide, 132 million girls between 6 and 17 are out of school, more than 21 times the number of girls in school in France. However, every year at school allows a girl to increase her future income by 10% to 20%, which directly contributes to improving her country's growth. That is why, on the occasion of the International Day of the Girl on 11 October, we recall that education is a fundamental right for all children, Article 28 of the 1989 International Convention on the Rights of the Child ratified by 195 countries. A girl's education is recognized as one of the most powerful levers to escape poverty and be emancipated. It is a priority to take action so that millions of girls can go to school. Schooling a girl is about giving her confidence, making her own choices, having a job to build her future. This chapter explores girls' education challenges and solutions in MENA countries.
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Introduction

In the last decade, gender equality balance has been recognized as one of the most significant objectives of the giver network.

For Becker (1981), financial specialists have since a long time ago contended that families' differential treatment of kids contingent on genre orientation can be clarified by the basic monetary conditions. Foster (1995) finds that a youngster's prosperity differs with changes in salary and costs and that the prosperity of girls is more delicate to these vacillations than that of a boy. Thus, Behrman (1988) has indicated that girls’ nourishment endures more than that of a boy in the lean, instead of the pinnacle, farming season. Differential treatment of daughters and sons as to intra-family unit nourishment distributions and long haul outcomes on female murder and genre orientation inequality has been stated as a clear wonder in Asia. In India, Rose (1999) looks at the connection between utilization smoothing and overabundance female mortality. She finds ideal precipitation stuns in youth to build the proportion of the likelihood that a girl survives by the likelihood that a boy endures.

One of the additionally striking instances of differential treatment of boys and girls inside family units in developing nations is the pervasive genre orientation predisposition in instruction. All in all, girls will, in general, get less tutoring than boys, especially so in provincial zones, low-income countries and South Asia (Alderman et al., 1996, Behrman and Knowles, 1999). The potential reasons for this sexual orientation hole in tutoring have been dependent upon less study and, likewise, the connection between changes in families' monetary circumstances and differential action in youngsters' education is not settled.

“Education that is designed to develop learners' general knowledge, skills, and competencies and literacy and numeracy skills, often to prepare students for more advanced educational programs at the same or higher International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED: The International Standard Classification of Education) levels and to lay the foundation for lifelong learning”. (UNESCO)

If millions of children do not have admission to education in many developing countries, the situation of girls is even more worrying. 64 million girls aged 6 to 14 do not have access to education.

Still today, a great injustice remains in the world: 132 million girls are still not in school although education is a fundamental human right for all children, per under Article 28 of the 1989 International Convention on the Rights of the Child. Yet school is the fundamental spaces in which girls can learn and build their futures. Without school and training, girls will not have the occasion to gain the same power, freedom, and representation in the society as boys.

From a young age, the fate of girls without school is sealed. Their failure to attend school has serious consequences for the lives of each of them, in addition to the development of their community and their entire country. Without school, girls are considered to have a lower status than boys. Without schools, it is difficult for them to get out of poverty. The lack of education for girls also represents a real obstacle to the development of countries. Without education, girls cannot have access to power, autonomy, and freedom. There is no future without equality and no equality without education!

Whether at home, in communities, at school, at work or in parliament, every day, decisions that affect the lives of millions of girls and young women are made by those in power who rarely take into account their needs, interests or opinions. Discriminated in the school, girls remain invisible and excepted from positions of power.

Indeed, with equal access to education, girls and young ladies would be better represented in decision-making bodies. They would finally have the power to influence the decisions that affect their lives. Power would no longer be synonymous solely with force and domination of one sex over another. For example, globally, women hold only 23% of the seats in parliament and represent only 5% of the mayors. At this rate, it will take 100 years to achieve equality in political representation and 217 years to achieve true equal opportunity in the world of work.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Economic Development: It represents positive changes in demographics of a geographical area or population. Such changes lead to the improvement of the population and the development of living conditions.

MENA Countries: It refers to a large region, from Morocco in North-West Africa to Iran in South-West Asia, which generally includes all countries in the Middle East and North Africa.

Gender: It is a pair of social roles based on the person’s gender, roles to which people identify or not.

Girls' Child Education: It is not about schooling for girls only. This concept includes girls' sense of security while in school; complementing all levels of education with the skills needed to meet the demands of competition in the labor market; learning the skills needed to adapt to a changing world; making decisions about one’s own life.

Childhood: The first period of human life, from birth to adolescence (from birth to 18 years).

Gender Equality: Is the principle that men and women should receive equal treatment and should not be discriminated against based on their genre affiliation.

Rural Areas: The rural area comprises the population, territory and other resources of the countryside, which is to say the areas outside the major urban centers. In several countries, these areas lack of health facilities, infrastructure, schools.

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