Global Diversity and Organizational Culture's Impact on Adaptation, Performance, and Innovation

Global Diversity and Organizational Culture's Impact on Adaptation, Performance, and Innovation

Doris E. Cross (Organizational Change and Development Company (OCDC), USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1913-3.ch084
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Diversity and change are key concepts facing our world. As we enter into the 21st century, organizational leaders recognize the importance of diverse perspectives and adaptation to changes as competitive advantages. Doris E. Cross is an educator and researcher on diversity issues influence on organizational cultures. This chapter identifies factors, such as changing demographics, tumultuous economies, and workforce dynamics, effects on individual perceptions of organizational cultures and performances. Cross considers embracing diversity as a competitive advantage that adds significance to companies' market values globally. To effectively manage market changes, organizational leaders are encouraged to examine the inclusion of diverse perspectives to capture both employees and consumers' loyalty. She contends diverse perceptions in organizational cultures encourage new ideas and innovative approaches to meeting the needs of diverse customers. Changes within organizations are most effective when its adaptation, change, and performance are intricately linked with its advancement.
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Global Perspectives On Race And Ethnicity

Globally, definitions of race and ethnicity are based on varying factors such as heredity, genetics, and socio-economic statuses. In the United States and other nations, the issue of race and ethnicity heightens the interest of demographic realities. The two concepts remain vague, wide-ranging, and misused by many. In the literature, the concept of race is ascribed to a person’s group based on their biological and physical appearances. These characteristics are considered inherent, heritable, persistent, or predictive in nature. Yet, this notion is considered unverifiable based on scientific conjectures on pure phenotype origins and social and cultural traits. Biological blending among groups with different prototypes makes it difficult to substantiate this premise. In some countries, social and cultural traits are often used to classify race among groups with identical phenotypes (Chang & Dodd, 2001; Perez & Hirschman, 2009). For example, Brazil’s racial classifications based on skin shades vary from South Africa’s black-white-colored paradigms (Deng, 1996, 1997; Stam, 1997). Koreans and Japanese who are classified in the same racial category are considered two different “races” primarily by Japanese’s notion of blood affinities (Dikkster, 1997; Min, 1992). Racial classifications are often influenced by a group’s socio-economic status. Brazilians social-economic statuses affect racial identifications or assignments. Also, research scholars state that in the Mexican society it is difficult to distinguish between Indians and Mestizos phenotypes. However, both groups are identified by their social and cultural traits (Hanchard, 1994; Reichmann, 1999; Twine, 1998). Nutini (1997) confirms that Indians “become” Mestizos by the acquisition of social and cultural traits irrelevant to phenotypes.

On the other hand, ethnicity is a culturally derived term that embodies the values, institutions and patterns of behavior of a group (Chang & Dodd, 2001; Perez & Hirschman, 2010). Ethnicity is considered a composite whole of the group that represents its holistic experiences, world views, and aspirations. Research studies indicate that ethnicity defines people’s membership in a group, its centrality to the human experience and identity; and a sense of oneness that incorporates languages, religion, and demarcations (Bottaffi, Bacalentri, Braham, & Gindro, 2002).

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