From Global to Universal-Complementary Civilization

From Global to Universal-Complementary Civilization

Andrew Targowski (Haworth College of Business, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 36
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-004-2.ch007
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The purpose of this chapter is to define processes triggering the emergence of global civilization at the beginning of the 21st century. In addition, a proof is provided that the fourth wave of globalization leads towards the emergence of global civilization as one of facets of world civilization, including a proposal of the direction in which one must lead the further development of world civilization. The further purpose of this section is to define the sources of crisis affecting civilization and to define a solution by developing the concept of universal-complementary civilization. The study is based on the critical theory of civilization, which not only analyzes “how it is” but also provides some solutions “how it should be.” A graphic modeling of civilizations will be applied to move from scenario-driven considerations to system-driven synthesis of components and their relationships. First to be analyzed will be symptoms of the civilization crisis in general. Later, the question is posed: Can Western and global civilizations solve this crisis? Eventually a new solution is offered under the term “universal- complementary civilization,” as a foundation for all kinds of particular and common (global) civilizations. The life cycle of this new civilization is defined and the strategy how to begin its implementation will be suggested.
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The Four Waves Of Globalization

The first wave of globalization took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Atlantic Europeans (from Spain, Portugal, England, France, and the Netherlands) migrated to new colonies in America and Asia at the rate of tens of thousands per year. For example, out of a maximum home population of 1.9 million, half a million Dutch emigrants moved to Asia (Indonesia mainly) between 1600 and 1700 (Parry, 1966). The “Little Ice Age” in Europe and the growth of population, as well as progress in the construction of long-distance sailing ships and firepower, triggered this wave. Raudens (1999) argues that this colonizing conquest caused nineteenth- and twentieth-century European imperialism directly and perhaps did much to cause industrialization as well.

The second wave of modern globalization took place from 1870 to 1914 due to advances in transportation, reduced trade barriers and migration of 10% of the global population to less densely populated countries (from Europe to America, from India to Sri Lanka and Africa, from China to Burma, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Singapore, and so forth). Protectionism and ineffective economic policies led to an increased gap between globalizers and the rest of the world. Two World Wars and the Great Depression stopped the global economic integration as too far-reaching for the post-war and post-crisis times.

The third wave of globalization took place from 1950 to 1980. Its goal was to integrate economically the richest countries: Europe, North America, and Japan. Policies of trade liberalization were developed within frameworks of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Exports from developing countries were limited to commodities and such specialized products as art.

The current and fourth wave of globalization takes place on the threshold of the third millennium, and is the most extensive. The World is shrinking fast and coming together as a global civilization, which shapes our lives and changes politics, work, and families.

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