Global Warming and Biodiversity

Global Warming and Biodiversity

Noopur Khare (Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow, India), Divya Singh (Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow, India), Rama Kant (GCRG Group of Institutions, Lucknow, India) and Pragati Khare (Bhagwant University, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1226-5.ch001

Abstract

Some natural and some artificial activities are responsible for global warming, which is not only affecting the environment but also humans at an alarming rate. The effects of global warming are seen in growing biodiversity. There are many greenhouse gases, which form a thin layer in the atmosphere making the Earth's surface warmer day by day. The presence of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapors are responsible for global warming. Global warming behaves like greenhouse in which a glass chamber is incorporated that allows the sunrays to pass inside the chamber but does not allow reflecting back from the glass. Due to this, the inside temperature of the chamber becomes hotter in comparison to the outside temperature. The maintenance of the temperature inside the chamber helps plant growth.
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Introduction

Since industrial revolution, as greenhouse gases are increasing at high rate, these gases are resulting in the increase in temperature of earth’s atmosphere. In present scenario, increase in temperature is majorly due to human activities (Eichenlaub et al., 1990). It is mainly caused when there is increase in the carbon dioxide level, greenhouse gases when fossil fuels are burned as also due to deforestation. When these gases increase without any change in the other gases in the atmosphere will result in increase in temperature of the planet (Ahrens, 1995). There is increase in concentration of the atmospheric gases as recorded. The concentration of methane in the atmosphere is 149 per cent and the concentration of carbon dioxide is 31 per cent. During last few centuries there is a rapid increase in the temperature mainly due to the gases which evolve from industries. The results of increase in gases have shown increase in the sea level (Geiger et al., 1995). The long terms of global warming results in the melting up of polar ice with coastal flooding. This global warming also results in extinction of the species, increase in tropical storms, melting up of the snow, increase in the tropical disease. Global warming is also caused due to increase in carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane level, deforestation, burning of wood, coal and petroleum.

The Earth’s atmosphere is becoming warmer day by day as earth absorbs 76% of the solar energy which reaching to the earth. The gases in the atmosphere for e.g. Carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon and water vapours are known as greenhouse gases. These gases absorb heat by restricting heat to move away from earth, hence resulting in increase of the atmosphere temperature known as global warming (Kellogg, 1991).

There are many places on earth where the temperature is very low, for these types of places glass cover is used called as greenhouse to grow different flowers, fruits and vegetables. This greenhouse chamber allows the heat to cross the glass where it gets trapped inside the chamber and does not allow the heat and light to pass out the glass chamber making the internal environment hotter and suitable for the growth of the plants. In the similar way ozone layer is protecting the earth’s atmosphere from the upcoming direct sun rays which are reaching the earth surface. It also protects the living beings from the direct ultraviolet rays falling on the earth’s surface. Hence in the same way this full chamber is known as natural greenhouse effect as it maintains the temperature near the earth’s surface and making the atmosphere warmer (Lindzen, 1990). In artificial greenhouse the sun light enter the glass, increases the temperature of the soil and atmosphere which helps in the growth of the plants, flowers, fruits and vegetables. When the soil and the atmosphere inside the chamber increases they in turn releases infrared radiations which in turn are partly absorbed inside the glass and partly gets reflected out from the glass. In the same way in the case of the earth’s atmosphere carbon dioxide absorbs heat contributing to the global warming. Other gases which are also involved in the greenhouse effect are ozone, CFC’s, methane and nitrous oxide (Michaels & Stooksbury, 1992). These gases are emitted naturally as well as through manmade activities. The use of the compounds releasing the greenhouses gases should be controlled otherwise the temperature of the atmosphere will reach to the urge of species extinction. The increase in the global temperature also results in the increase of the diseases like malaria, yellow fever and dengue.

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