Graphical-Based Authentication System and Its Applications

Graphical-Based Authentication System and Its Applications

Priti Golar (Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Amity University, Raipur, India) and Brijesh Khandelwal (Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Amity University, Raipur, India)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 29
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-6721-0.ch004
OnDemand PDF Download:
No Current Special Offers


Authentication systems are the protective barrier of any software. They make sure that the right people enter the system and access the right information. As per available literature, there are basically three authentication techniques. This research study is based on the knowledge-based authentication, since it is the most widely accepted technique for securing resources from unauthorized access. As an initial step, the existing knowledge-based authentication system has been studied for its highlights, comparative facts, advantages, and disadvantages. For acceptance of any secure system, the usability aspect is the first step in the authentication process. The various usability evaluation parameters of the existing systems and an approach towards developing a modified usable authentication system have been briefly discussed. An initial lab study for the proposed system was conducted to analyze the comparative results. The future scope of other dimensions, namely randomness and security, as well as a thorough investigation, has been highlighted as the research work's concluding remark.
Chapter Preview


Authentication is the first step in securing data. A critical objective of the authentication scheme is to assist users in creating stronger passwords. A graphical password is a type of authentication that requires the user to choose from a set of images displayed in a graphical user interface in a specific order. Graphical passwords are more secure than text-based passwords because many people use familiar terms to memorize the passwords of text-based. A lexi conquest always returns a password, allowing a hacker to quickly gain access to a device. However, if successive screen pages contain a set of selectable images, and if each page contains numerous images, a hacker attempts any probable combination at random.

Authentication is the process of information security. As shown in Figure 1, authentication methods can be classified into three main categories.

Figure 1.

Authentication Methods


The details of the above figure can be understood by the following-

  • 1.

    Token-based-systems—Token-based systems are usually used for key cards and smart cards. Numerous token-based systems incorporate knowledge-based security techniques as well. For instance, the PIN for DEBIT/CREDIT cards. It is based on a possession that you possess (Patra et al., 2016).

  • 2.

    Biometric based - Fingerprints, iris scans etc., biometric-based authentication methods have yet to achieve worldwide adoption. The primary disadvantage of this approach is the high cost of such systems, as well as the slow and frequently unreliable identification process (Patra et al., 2016). The process of establishing a user's identity by physical or behavioral characteristics is recognized as biometric authentication. It is based on a short story called Something You Are. It uses physiological or behavioral features such as fingerprint or facial scans, iris or voice recognition to authenticate individuals.

  • 3.

    Knowledge based-The most critical authentication techniques are knowledge-based ones, which include both text-based and image-based passwords. KBA is a form of authentication that requires the user to answer at least one “secret” question. Knowledge-based authentication is the most common method of authentication, which includes both text-based and image-based passwords. KBA is based on a piece of information that the user has. Alphanumeric and Graphical Password are the two types of knowledge-based authentication. The primary disadvantage of Token-Based and Biometric-Based Authentication is their high cost and requirement of specialized hardware. Graphical-based password techniques have been proposed as a possible alternative to text-based password techniques, based in part on the fact that humans recall images better than text.

Recognition-based graphical systems and recall-based graphical systems are two types of picture-based techniques(Biddle et al., 2012). In recognition-based techniques, a user is given a selection of images to choose from, and then the images are recognized and identified during the registration process. Passfaces, for example, is a graphical password scheme based on human face recognition. Users are given a broad selection of photos to choose from when creating a password. Users must identify the pre-selected image from many images provided to them in order to log in (Boonkrong, 2019).

A user can reproduce something he or she created or selected earlier during the registration process using recall-based techniques. For example, in the Passpoint system, a user can click any point in an image to generate the password and a tolerance around each pixel is determined.To login, the user must select the points inside the tolerance in the correct order during authentication (Biddle et al., 2012).

The fact that the humans can remember pictures better than text, has triggered the invention of graphical password schemes.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: