Green Material for Fused Filament Fabrication: A Review

Green Material for Fused Filament Fabrication: A Review

Mastura Mohammad Taha (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia), Ridhwan Jumaidin (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia), Nadlene M. Razali (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia) and Syahibudil Ikhwan Abdul Kudus (Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1374-3.ch001

Abstract

Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has been developed in additive manufacturing technology as a fast and simple manufacturing process in product design. Advantage of the process such as flexibility in terms of the materials employment has attracted many researchers to develop new materials for the feed stock filament in the heat extrusion process of FFF. Green materials or bio-composites materials have been found in FFF and successfully commercialized in the market. However, a deep research should have been performed prior the application because of the unique characteristics of the material itself. The challenge for the researchers to develop bio-composite materials as the filament in FFF technology is to determine the right composition of the composites with the right thermal, mechanical, and rheological properties. Therefore, in this study, a review has been conducted to highlight the important requirements of the process and materials. Green materials such as bio-composites have a great potential in the FFF technology and could improve the sustainability impact.
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Introduction

Dematerialization is defined as reduction in quantity of materials used and/or the quantity of waste generated (Cleveland & Ruth, 1998). This principle included in sustainable development where it could reduce waste materials and environmental effects. Technology in manufacturing process has been developed into several techniques that support sustainability with dematerialization principle. One of the current manufacturing process technologies that optimize the usage of materials is additive manufacturing. Additive manufacturing technologies process the 3D model data and joining the materials layer upon layer according to the desired shape and geometry. This technique is opposed the principle in traditional machining where the materials are removed part upon part for desired shape and generates material waste after the process. Consequently, waste management technologies are required and consume more energy and cost. Hence, additive manufacturing is considered as one of the initiative for supporting sustainable product development.

Additive manufacturing technologies include powder bed fusion (polymers and metals, e.g.: Laser Sintering, Laser Melting), binder jetting, vat polymerization (e.g.: Stereolitography), material jetting and material extrusion (e.g.: Fused Filament Fabrication). Among these technologies, Fused Filament Fabrication or FFF (commonly referred to as Fused Filament Fabrication or FFF by Stratasys) is found to be compatible with composite materials that filled with natural s (Bikas, Stavropoulos, & Chryssolouris, 2016). The process utilizes materials with lower melting point by extruding the molten filament through movable circular nozzle. Generally, the filament is heated up to 1oC above its melting point and solidifies right after extrusion. In comparison with the other types of additive manufacturing technologies, FFF requires less cost with high speed of production due to its simplicity (Frăţilă & Rotaru, 2017). However, poor surface finish is produced and secondary manufacturing process is needed for the good quality of product finishing.

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