How Knowledge, Technology, and Project Management Processes in Brazilian Universities Help Innovation in Industry

How Knowledge, Technology, and Project Management Processes in Brazilian Universities Help Innovation in Industry

Patrícia Pellegrino de Souza, Ana Carolina Calçado Lopes Martins, Tina Stutzman, Danilo Cançado Peixoto Pires, Elimar Pires Vasconcellos Renato da Silva Lacerda, Renato Ferreira Rodrigues de Macedo, Luz América Castiblanco
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8468-3.ch006
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Knowledge is the act of having a concept of something. It includes descriptions, assumptions, and theories. Knowledge Management is about making the right knowledge available to the right people. A Brazilian university made its own pathway to manage the knowledge generated inside the academia favoring the market needs, showing that an organization can learn and use its knowledge in businesses applications, creating competitive advantage, regarding innovation, for the productive sector. An understanding of the market and society's demands enabled the development of products, technologies, and services with high added-value in line with solutions to challenges faced by businesses. A Brazilian startup made the “interaction” between market and academia allowing interest increase of productive sector in performing projects in partnership with research and technology institutes. Both successful cases in this chapter ensure the importance of knowledge, project, and technology management processes conferring innovative technological and market advantages to small companies and big industries.
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Knowledge is the act or fact of knowing; it is to have an idea or concept of something. It is the wisdom, the education and the information. It also includes descriptions, assumptions, concepts, theories, principles and procedures.

In order to speak about knowledge, it is necessary to talk about data, which is a mixture of codes and information. As the result of the manipulation of data processing, the knowledge can be considered information presenting utility (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Information vs. Knowledge


Knowledge can be divided into a number of categories: sensory knowledge that is common knowledge between humans and animals; intellectual knowledge that is the reasoning, thinking of the human being; popular knowledge that is the form of knowledge of a particular culture; scientific knowledge that are evidence-based analysis and philosophical knowledge which is linked to the construction of concepts and ideas (Stanley, 2002).

Procedures to organize and relate scientific knowledge with ideas and perceptions of the course of the events would give rise to a field called Knowledge management. This term has been used in both academic and business areas since it was first thought up in the 1980s. Interest has increased rapidly during the new century and shows no signs of decline. The current state of the knowledge management field is that it encompasses four overlapping areas: Managing knowledge (creating/acquiring, sharing, retaining, storing, using, updating, retiring), organizational learning, Intellectual capital and Knowledge economics. Within (and across) these, knowledge management has to address issues relating to technology, people, culture and systems.

Technology is a Greek word derived from the fusion of two words: techne (meaning art) and logos (meaning logic or science). Thus, technology means the art of logic or the art of scientific discipline. Technology can include both tangible products, such as the computer, and knowledge about processes and methods, such as the technology of mass production introduced by Henry Ford, for example. One interesting definition about technology was quoted by Michael Bigwood (2004) in his book Research-Technology Management where technology is defined as “the use of science-based knowledge to meet a need.” He says that the definition “perfectly describes the concept of technology as a bridge between science and new products.” Technology is based on and arises from scientific advances and the understanding/knowledge obtained through research and development. It then leverages knowledge and information to improve both the performance and overall usefulness of products, systems, and services.

Michael Porter, a Harvard Business School Professor, is a business analyst who believes that technology is one of the most significant forces affecting business competition. In his book, Competitive Advantage (1985), Porter observed that technology has the potential to change the structure of existing industries and to create new industries. As stated by the U.S National Research Council (1987), technology management links “engineering, science, and management disciplines to plan, develop, and implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization”. Thus, technology management focuses on the intersection of technology and business, encompassing not only technology creation but also its application, dissemination, and impact. Since Knowledge and technology are such vital forces to economy growth, the fields of knowledge and technology managements have emerged to address particular ways in which universities, science and technology institutes and companies should approach the use of both types of management in business strategies and operations, working alone or together.

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