Hypermedia and its Role in Learning

Hypermedia and its Role in Learning

Vehbi Turel (The University of Bingol, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch243
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Background

It is a de facto that nowadays when we speak of ‘hypermedia’ mostly one thing comes to mind. It is the use of digital video, audio/sound, text, visuals (i.e. pictures/images/photographs, graphics, tables, figures), animations, hyperlinks, optimum combinations, instructions etc. on the same computer platform, which are totally computerised and under computer and learners’ control (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

A hypermedia example that provides an optimum combination (i.e. text + video + audio) as feedback. The task requires learners to type in a word. Once the word is typed in, the program instantly displays feedback (Turel & McKenna, 2013, p. 194; Türel, 2012, p. 42).

Besides, it was well known that multimedia also referred to the use of different tools (i.e. television, the tape recorder, video, the overhead projector, the slide projector etc.) (Ashworth, 1996, p. 81). This was later “referred as multiple media to differentiate it from computerised multimedia” (Peter, 1994, p. 10) or hypermedia, as known now. In those days, term ‘multimedia’ was used instead of ‘hypermedia’.

Türel (2014, p. 1) defines multimedia as a combination and delivery of a wide range of digital elements on the same computer platform which “provides a multidimensional, multi-sensory environment in which rich, efficient, instant, comprehensible, optimum and meaningful input and feedback can be presented” to learners. Allen (1994) defines multimedia as ‘‘… programs which involve the use of sound, pictures, and film, as well as ordinary text, to convey information.” Brett (1998, p. 81) states: “multimedia can be defined as the computer-delivered combination of a large range of communications elements ….” Collin (1997, p. 151) defines multimedia as “the combination of sound, graphics, animation, video and text within an application; an application that uses these elements is often called a ‘multimedia title’ and might also provide links between elements in the form of buttons, hotspots or hyperlinks to create an interactive application through which a user navigates.”

When links between elements are provided, then multimedia is called interactive multimedia (IMM), otherwise it is called multimedia. Mangiafico (1996, p. 46) defines IMM as “learning systems that integrate combinations of audio, text, and video with computer programs allowing students to interact with the material. Students can listen to people speaking, focus on gestures and facial expressions, access transcripts … and assess their own progress with interactive exercises.” Watts (1997, p. 2) defines IMM as “applications which seek to create exploratory learning environments in which digital … components are fully integrated through platforms and placed under the direct control of users who are able to follow individual pathways through data stores.”

Key Terms in this Chapter

Hypermedia: IMM is also called hypermedia.

Hypertext: Hypermedia text retrieval system that enables learners to access particular media types in certain locations or files in applications, webpages or other digital environments.

Multiple Media: The use of different tools such as television, the tape recorder, video, the overhead projectors, slide projector etc.

Hyperlinks: A button, image, icon etc. in a digital environment on which learners can click to navigate to another part of the environment.

Adaptive Hypermedia (AHM): The combination and delivery of digital elements (i.e. text, sound/audio, visuals, animation, video etc.) on the same computer platform that offers personalised learning.

Multimedia: The combination and delivery of digital elements on the same computer platform.

Interactive Multimedia (IMM): The combination and delivery of digital elements on the same computer platform which have links between elements in the form of buttons, hotspots or hyperlinks to create an interactive application in which users can navigate.

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