ICT Process Optimization Framework: A Systematic Literature Review

ICT Process Optimization Framework: A Systematic Literature Review

Joaquina Marchão, Leonilde Reis, Paula Ventura Martins
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9227-4.ch009
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Organizations need to provide more efficient services with increasingly optimized costs. Organizations may have an area of management control with transversal responsibilities in information and communication technology (ICT) support function, operating information technology front office, monitoring information technology (IT) service catalog and performance, reporting the service level agreements with stakeholders, controlling software and equipment installed or under maintenance, department budget control, management of suppliers' contracts, and financial analysis. The chapter presents a systematic literature review related to relationship management, optimization, and alignment of business processes between ICT areas and other organizational business units in a multidisciplinary way. The proposed framework pretends to contribute to creating strategies and indicators that allow optimized risk management, resources management, cost control, and streamlining of the defined processes in a continual improvement cycle.
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Currently, organizations must have defined communication strategies between employees and stakeholders that are swift and assertive. However, in large number of organizations, there is informal information that runs the risk of being lost when an employee is promoted or left. Thus, it is urgent to optimize the processes using ICT to include parameters and metrics that enhance digitalization towards the digital transformation of processes.

Digitalization can be considered a transforming factor in a globalized business context. The introduction of novel digital technologies into the market has been driving organizations to digitally transform their businesses (Feroz et al., 2021). In the management of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) services and support of business, has more complexity, and new challenges appear. An increase of complexity is resulting, among other factors, from the diversity of ICTs and components used: in hardware, software, and communications (Veronica & Debora Suryawan, 2018).

Digitization affects not only businesses but also the entire society. Each industry should adapt to the changes brought by Digital Era (Osman & Ghiran, 2019). Digitalization can drive the sustainable transformation of society and industry. Many of the opportunities are, however, closely linked with risks. The dynamics and uncertainties of digitalization are complex, and to make it a sustainable success, all actors involved should be engaged in a co-design process to develop a governance structure that is in line with sustainability (Renn et al., 2021).

Digital transformation dominates the practical and scientific discourse. Still, many companies do not have a clear plan on how to approach it. Small- and medium-sized enterprises, in particular, struggle to initiate their digital journey as they lack resources and expertise (Fischer et al., 2020). Digital transformation is not a single step undertaken for upgrading specific functions of organizations but is more of a process that brings fundamental changes in organizations and results in creating additional opportunities for improvement (Feroz et al., 2021).

To accelerate the business, it is expected IT Development bring as much change as possible. IT Operations tend to come with an outlook where change is the enemy. The business folks depend on them to keep the lights on and deliver the services that make the business money today. Between IT development and IT operations, are issues caused by a miscellaneous of conflicting motivations among people, processes, and technology/tooling. Hence there is a pressing need for strengthening the harmonization of Development and Operations functions of an IT organization (Shinn & Lunz, 2015).

It is considered that the management and governance of ICT have today high importance to organizations, involving multidisciplinary knowledge. Themes of operational efficiency, cost optimization, and stakeholder satisfaction, are relevant topics in any organization strategy, directly influencing the financial return. ICT is now inseparable from the organizations' business, so, it is important for the ICT department to align IT management and governance with the organization's management and governance.

COVID-19 pandemic has forced many organizations to undergo significant transformation, rethinking key elements of their business processes and use of technology to maintain operations whilst adhering to a changing landscape of guidelines and new procedures (Dwivedi et al., 2020).

A fundamental aspect that influences the competitiveness of an organization is how it responds, learns, and adapts to market challenges, opportunities, and threats. Managing these requirements requires the ability to constantly analyze and redefine the processes involved, control their execution, and assess performance, in a continuous periodic cycle.

Business Process Modelling (BPM) is a way to support business processes using several techniques, methods, models, and systems to design, control, and analyses business processes, where many resources are used: humans, technologies, organizations, applications (Alotaibi & Liu, 2013).

Key Terms in this Chapter

International Standards: A set of technical standards that establish a quality management model for organizations in general, whatever their type or size, covering various areas within organizations.

Information and Communication Technologies: A technological resource set used to process information and ensure communication. When used in an integrated way it enhances information transmission and communication processes.

ITIL: Framework the most widely accepted IT service management system in the world. ITIL is a set of practices used by organizations to manage IT services.

Information Systems: Is the organized set of components such as people, processes of collection and transmission of data and material resources, automated or manual. The interaction of components enhances the processing and dissemination of information.

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