Identifiable Challenges as Global Complexities: Globalization, Gender Violence, and Statelessness

Identifiable Challenges as Global Complexities: Globalization, Gender Violence, and Statelessness

Nicoletta Policek (University of Cumbria, UK)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9627-1.ch003

Abstract

Discourses on globalization and violence often fall short on understanding the gender aspects of different forms of violence. This is particularly the case for stateless women and girls, faced with the existing institutionalized systems of social and legal protection which do not account for them, making them almost invisible. Subsequently, this contribution claims that the assessment of vulnerability, and likely responses, are linked to power and identity at the global levels. Furthermore, such responses are shaped by the structure of agency and associated power structures in society. Unequal power structures are likely to lead to unequal patterns of neglect, or perverse responses that protect entrenched interests aligned with existing structures of identity or influence. In this way, the “vulnerability of stateless identity” can itself be a source of heightened anxiety and fear.
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Introduction

Globalization is shaping the interaction among nations, economies and people (Scholte, 2005) and remains a predominantly male discourse (Adam, 2002). It affects differently men and women as workers, carers, consumers, re/producers and loan/aid recipients. The distinction between economic globalization and social globalization is one way to make a distinction between the development paradigm which is growth-oriented and the human-centred development paradigm (Aguilar and Lacsamana, 2004) which in turn widen the divide between men and women. Within such paradigms, both positive and negative aspects of globalization are easily recognisable. Globalization is increasing the contacts between people across national boundaries in economy, in technology, in culture and in governance (Scholte, 2005). At the same time, it is also fragmenting production processes, labor markets, political entities and societies, often alienating individuals from the job market (Sassen, 1998). Women are more likely to experience “in and out of work” poverty, aggressive cuts in welfare benefits and public sector employment and services, than men. When women become financially dependent are often more likely to become more vulnerable to violence (Towers & Walby, 2012).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Patriarchy: It is a term used in feminism to describe the system of gender-based hierarchy in society which assigns most power to men, and assigns higher value to men, maleness, and “masculine traits”. Feminism recognizes most of human society as patriarchal.

Social Identity: Can be defined as an individual's knowledge of belonging to certain social groups, together with some emotional and valuational significance of that group membership.

Globalization: Intended as the growing interdependence of the world's economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information.

Feminism: It is the belief in social, economic, and political equality of the sexes. Although largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women's rights and interests.

Intersectionality: A concept often used in critical theories to describe the ways in which oppressive institutions (racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, xenophobia, classism, etc.) are interconnected and cannot be examined separately from one another.

Statelessness: In international law, a stateless person is someone who is “not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law.” Some stateless persons are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border.

Socialization: It is the process through which a person, from birth through death, is taught the norms, customs, values, and roles of the society in which they live.

Human Rights: They are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death. Human rights belong to every human being regardless of sex, race, nationality, socio-economic group, political opinion, sexual orientation or any other status.

Gender-based Violence: It involves men and women, in which the female is usually the target, and is derived from unequal power relationships between men and women. Violence is directed specifically against a woman because she is a woman or affects women disproportionately. It includes, but is not limited to, physical, sexual, and psychological harm. The most pervasive form of gender-based violence is abuse of a woman by intimate male partners.

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