Identification of the Problem and Research Methodology

Identification of the Problem and Research Methodology

Pradeep Kumar, Rajeev Kumar, Kumar Balwant Singh, Madhurendra Kumar
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-9151-5.ch017
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Internet and applications have become an essential part of life nowadays. We are now at the stage where we can think about future smart cities as we are having various driving forces in the form of web-based applications. The main phenomena behind data-computing can be considered as for keeping data persistent, secure, available, and relevant for the information in real time. In the chapter, the authors proposed blockchain representation-based application process that is a low cost and efficient application for true sense ubiquitous usage that is also the demand of current time. The implemented application is providing a huge data security scenario for a web application system, and it is dealing with the efficient information processing towards storage, processing, and access of the information in a real time. In this chapter, the authors provided various schemes for high availability of on-demand data with proper asymmetric algorithms techniques.
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1 Introduction

Even quicker than many had anticipated decades ago, technology advancement is advancing. The massive research effort being made by the scientific community, which aspires to improve human life by creating a vision of a smarter world, is what's causing technology to advance at such a rapid pace. The development and implementation of smart city prototypes, which include smart houses, factories, autos, transit, and various smart human gadgets, has been heavily supported by academic research and industry adoption. The success of this futuristic human society was made possible by many fundamental technologies. The Internet of Things (IoT), Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Cloud, Fog, and Edge Computing, interruption systems, blockchain, cryptocurrencies and cybersecurity, cryptography methods are a few examples, although they are not the only ones. Furthermore, blockchain was able to improve these technologies by adding new features that are essential for the total automation needed in smart environments.

In addition to IoT, SDN offers intelligent control and administration of the underlying network through dynamic and programmable control. IoT networks are ideally suited for SDN because of how quickly the number of devices, where they are located, and how much data they send change. Furthermore, SDN enables the incorporation of AI and machine learning into the decision-making procedures for load balancing, computational offloading, traffic control, and data flow in the network. IoT is seen as a key component in allowing smart city innovation and, consequently, SDN. However, it calls for laborious computations and storage needs, which are incompatible with low-power and IoT devices with scarce resources. Cloud, fog, and edge computing technologies were mainly developed to assist in providing storage and computing resources as compensated services to manage such networks.

As a commercial service, cloud computing offers theoretically limitless computational and storage capacity. They are typically found in large data centers that are positioned in remote areas. The enormous volume of traffic that IoT devices generate can overwhelm the core network due to the distance. The service response time (delay) for IoT devices is also impacted by this distance, especially when they require feedback on their requests. A delay of just a few milliseconds could have disastrous consequences in time-sensitive Internet of Things applications like self-driving automobiles. Fog and Edge Computing technologies, for example, provide solutions to these problems by bringing such resources closer to the IoT infrastructure. They reduce latency and save network bandwidth by preprocessing and analyzing IoT data earlier before sending it to the cloud for more intensive processing and long-term storage.

The futuristic notion of “trustless” smart cities we previously discussed requires one missing technological link for all those technologies. A third-party trusted party is typically required to establish trust among the IoT devices performing the transactions in order to facilitate communication among numerous IoT devices, which are typically produced or owned by various enterprises. In this situation, blockchain can fill the gap and offer a decentralized way to establish this trust mechanism. IoT devices can also be used as a method to manage the trading of digital assets, carry out monetary transactions between them, and keep a permanent record of the transactions carried out by IoT devices. In reality, blockchains are capable of much more than that. They can assist mitigate some of the current disadvantages of SDN, Cloud, Fog, and Edge solutions for IoT applications and progress the growth of the IoT sector in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Blockchain, SDN, AI, cloud, fog, and edge computing technology integration


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