Identifying and Applying the Information Technology Competence Framework in an Online Teaching Environment

Identifying and Applying the Information Technology Competence Framework in an Online Teaching Environment

Thanh Chi Phan, Phuong Anh Le, Tien Minh Phan, Loc Phuoc Hoang, Hieu Thanh Le, Thanh Tu Ngo, Dung The Nguyen, Hung Van Tran
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-6967-2.ch019
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This study aims to identify the information technology (IT) competence framework to propose the requirements and procedures for use tools and resources in online teaching, and point out barriers to the application of IT in the online teaching environment. This study survey was conducted on sample space (n = 527) and 45 expert opinions. The reliability of the competence framework scale was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha and expert opinions. The experimental results demonstrated that the competencies in the experimental questionnaire were reliable. An overall alpha score for the pilot data was found at high (r = 0.792), which indicates a high reliability of the instrument. This study used the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The results will contribute to the theoretical and practical pedagogy of technology in education and online education.
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1. Introduction

Currently, different types of tools are applied to assess competencies or use the word skills, which help teachers to get the most accurate, objective, and reliable results about the learners' competencies. The goal of competence-based education is to focus on the output of the teaching and learning process to evaluate the level of achievement necessary for various competencies and the level of competence that learners need to achieve at the end of a training program. Thus, the development of technique, technology, and socio-economic status are the key elements to consider towards developing competence for learners.

The trend of technical and vocational education and training environments consist of skill development relating to a wide range of occupational fields, production, services, and livelihood. The trainings need to consider literacy, numeracy skill, transversal skills, and citizen skills which form an integral part of them (UNESCO, 2015). These learning environments can be clustered into three main attributes which are (1) Inclusive of education and training processes; (2) Comprehensive shaping of talent; and (3) Crossing all occupational fields (Ismail, et al., 2018).

To meet the needs of students with diverse abilities, scaffolding is necessary using differentiated instruction. According to Dhir (2020), experience-based lessons using instructional methods such as Content through Action (CTA) are an ideal approach conducive to teach 21st-century competencies. This, according to the author, will facilitate the learning of content and in increasing cognition.

In today digital world, in addition to the basic application of information technology (IT) in teaching, the identification of criteria and the demand for using IT competence in online teaching are the indispensable trends in education. Integration of technology has many benefits for both teachers and students in the teaching process. By studying the impact of applying IT competence in teaching through analyzing and compiling information from many related scientific publications conducted in different countries, the authors found that IT application enhances cognitive ability and self-learning ability of students (Almerich, Orellana, Suárez-Rodríguez, & Díaz-García, 2016; Hsu, 2017; Koehler, Mishra, Kereluik, Shin, & Graham, 2014). Therefore, it was essential for teachers to develop their own IT competence to improve the quality of instructional practice in order to develop IT competence for training.

Experienced online teachers were recruited to assess the online course designs using a 7-point Likert scale (Bigatel, Ragan, Kennan, May, & Redmond, 2010). The study found an effective online course to entail: 1) a course design for an effective interaction between teachers and learners, and the teachers are well prepared and fully supported; 2) creates a sense of online learning community; and 3) helps to stay abreast of the rapid advancement of technology (Sun & Chen, 2016). This demonstrates the impact of technology bringing fundamental success in online teaching, and it is essential in organizing and implementing courses. Identifying the IT competence framework to propose the requirements and procedures for useful tools and resources will help to communicate, organize, store, administer and assess learning in online teaching. IT competence framework is necessary which embodies the skills promoted by organizations such as UNESCO, ISTE, and TPACK.

The rapid development of IT has changed the form of education. Education is gradually shifting from knowledge-based teaching to competence-based teaching. Accordingly, learners need to be equipped with sufficient knowledge and skills to meet the requirements of the society as well as the labor market. In particular, with the 4th industrial revolution - the development trend based on the highly integrated platform of digital connectivity and IT system will lead to inevitable changes of most fields, including education. The technology support tools can also support teacher assessment and mentoring programs. These tools provide new ways to reflect, respond and evaluate teaching process.

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