Image Processing Approaches and Disaster Management

Image Processing Approaches and Disaster Management

Surendra Rahamatkar (Amity University, Raipur, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0182-5.ch007

Abstract

This chapter presents the relevance of picture handling to distinguish different sorts of harm. For areal-type harm, 1) edge extraction, 2) unsupervised arrangement, 3) texture examination, and 4) edge improvement are suitable to distinguish harmed zone. For liner-type harm, it is hard to improve the permeability of harm partition by picture preparing. Likewise, the impact of overlaying office information to help staff to discover harm at an extraction is described.
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Introduction

Disasters are disruptive events that cause deprivation, injury, hardship, suffering, and even death. Thousands of people are affected every year due to natural disasters. It results in a large amount of physical destruction and loss of lives. Natural disasters are large scale meteorological or geological events that have enough power to destroy nature, infrastructure, human being, and property. Some major types of natural disasters are hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, droughts, floods, landslide, wildfires, etc. Storms and floods are the most common types of disaster. Every year, these types of disasters witnessed in certain parts of the world that have such an adverse effect on human and wildlife. In developing countries like India, disasters much more pronounced. Some of the types of natural disasters are more likely to occur in certain parts of the world. For instance, areas near rivers or lake have the maximum chances of witnessing floods. But one cannot say when and where the natural calamity can occur and cause massive destruction. Some of the disasters can reduce to a certain extent by using disaster management techniques. This chapter deals with the disaster management techniques to be applied after analysing images captured from the satellite.

Natural Disaster Image Capturing Methods and Tools like Satellite

Natural disasters caused in the different regions can be detected by the satellite of high resolution to capture the image and process it later to find out the destruction caused in the particular area. Ørsted, Denmark's first satellite, was launched on February 23, 1999, into a polar, low Earth orbit to provide the first near-global set of high precision geomagnetic observations since the Magsat mission of 1979–1980 (Neubert et al., 2001). The satellite used for a different number of purposes. Some of the types include navigation, weather, communication, earth observation, and research satellites. The satellite data is beneficial for analysts to detect specific measures required for different purposes (Pichuzhkina & Roldugin, 2016). There are many advantages of using satellite for disaster situation: They can provide a rapid and accurate view of a disaster situation of large geographical dimension. The data can be used to detect the destruction and bring it to a significant concern. They can also provide the data on “the restricted areas” such as disaster occurring in a region where the entry should be prohibited. Satellite provides highly valuable information in disaster condition. Some of the times, this is the only option and necessity for retrieving any information. Scientists, Computer scientists, geologists have put a lot of effort in research to predict the place, time, occurrence, and severity of the disaster. Different data mining models have proposed for the prediction purpose. Along with this, researchers have been focusing on the disaster management and analysis of the needs of victims (Goswami, Chakraborty, Ghosh, Chakrabarti & Chakraborty, 2018). Data collected from the satellites, remote sensors, government bodies, geological departments before, during, and after the disaster.

Natural Disaster in India

India faces a variety of natural disasters every year. Rivers cover India on the three sides and Himalayas on the top. Due to this, India is more immune to floods. Recently we have seen how Kerala was profoundly affected by floods. Every year, natural calamities hit India with increasing frequency (Goswami, Chakraborty, Ghosh, Chakrabarti & Chakraborty, 2018). Cyclones, floods, and earthquakes are frequent. In June 2013, Kedarnath and Badrinath were affected by devastating floods and landslides. Below table shows disaster list from the previous 15 years:

Table 1.
Natural calamities in different parts of India
Disaster TypeYearOrigin
Earthquake2001Gujarat
1999Chamoli
Floods2007Bihar
2005Mumbai
2018Kerala
Landslides2014Pune
1998Malpa
Tsunami2004Indian ocean
Cyclones2010Andhra Pradesh
2018Orissa
2011Tamil Nadu
2012Tamil Nadu

Asia tops the list of disasters. Below image shows the pie chart of crashes occurring in different continents. In India, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the body that handles disaster management. Prime minister is the chairman of NDMA.

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