Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Food Consumption Pattern of Farming Households in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria

Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Food Consumption Pattern of Farming Households in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria

Fatai Abiola Sowunmi (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria) and Funmi Lydia Adeduntan (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2599-9.ch013
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The study examined the impact of rural-urban migration on the food consumption pattern of farming households. The study revealed that 73.8% of the households had migrants, while 80.2% of the migrants were male. The highest level of education of most of the migrants was secondary school (71.4%). The study showed that the major reason (63.3%) for migration was for job. The average remittance sent per year was ₦108,119.14. The study revealed that household expenditure on carbohydrate food group accounted for 54.4% of the total households' expenditure on food. The average dietary diversity indices for the migrant (0.345) and non-migrant (0.346) households were low. The study revealed that migration (short and long term) positively influenced per capita food expenditure of respondent. Despite the remittance from some of the migrants, the need to develop the rural areas in terms of provision of basic infrastructures by government is imperative in order to reduce rural-urban migration.
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High poverty rate and lack of basic infrastructures in the rural areas have contributed to shortage of labour for farming activities in Nigeria (Ogun, 2010). The neglect of agriculture for the crude oil compels rural households to look for opportunities away from the agricultural sector as a way to escape from poverty. The migration of youths from rural to urban areas has contributed significantly to the decline in agricultural production (Maharjan et al., 2013; Olayide, 2009). However, temporary migration to urban centre is undertaken by farmers during the dry season which affords farming households incomes that are invested in variety of production and consumption uses. Adewale (2005) affirmed that migration occurs as a response to economic development as well as social, cultural, environmental and political factors and effects on areas of origin as well as destination. Studies (Lewis, 2004; Osondu and Ibezim, 2001; Mbah et al., 2016) have shown that rural-urban migration is associated with heavy drain on the supply of rural family labour and also pulls out the individuals who are vital for agricultural production. The studies highlighted low agriculture productivity, reduction in agricultural labor force, farm work mostly done by the aged, food insecurity in households, poor standard of living, high cost of labor, among others as the negative effects of rural-urban migration. Through migration, able bodied youth relocate to urban areas making the old farmers left behind to overwork themselves with attendant decline in health. According to Amrevurayire (2016), migration places a greater burden on farmers by compelling them to cultivate the same farm size as when he had enough farm labour, working much longer hours thus, depriving farmer’s time for leisure or participation in various social activities. Rural-urban migration brings about rapid deterioration of rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity that arises mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural populace (Mini 2000)

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