Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Communities

Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Communities

Isahaque Ali (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Rameeja Shaik (GITAM University, India), Maruthi A. Y. (Krishna University, India), Azlinda Azman (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Paramjit Singh (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Jeremiah David Bala (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Adeleke A. O. (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Mohd Rafatullah (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Norli Ismail (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Akil Ahmad (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia) and Kaizar Hossain (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9771-1.ch003

Abstract

Earth and coastal ecosystems are not static, and they usually respond to environmental changes, mostly anthropogenic and climatic. Here, the authors described natural values, coastal landforms, and types of infrastructure that are most likely to be affected by climate change (CC) and provide information for assessing inundation, erosion, and recession risks for a chosen location. In this chapter, the authors focused on the land uses, the vulnerability of coastal infrastructure, and argued for effective linkages between CC issues and development planning. They also recommended the incorporation of CC impact and risk assessment into long-term national development strategies. Policies will be presented to implement these recommendations for adaptation to climate variability and global CC. The authors provide general recommendations and identify challenges for the incorporation of climate change impacts and risk assessment into long-term land-use national development plans and strategies. Overall, this chapter provides an overview of the implications for CC to coastal management.
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Introduction

Nearly 1.2 billion of people in the world (23% world`s people) live with 100 km of the coastal areas and by 2030 (Small & Nicholls, 2003) it will be at 50%. These people are unprotected to definite hazard such as hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal flooding and transmission of marine related infection diseases (Adger et al., 2005). Currently, an estimated report says, about ten million of world people facing coastal flood every year because of storm landfall typhoons and surge and near future 50 million could be at risk by 2080 due to climate change and growing population masses (Nicholls, 2004).The climate change has occurred to changes in flooding, temperature and precipitation that make more vulnerable to the people of coastal areas. Additionally, the rise in sea level and wave heights will also affect the lives of coastal people. Both straight impact (frequent storm surges and faster coastal erosion) and secondary effects (loss of coastal resources such as aquaculture and loss of critical physical infrastructure, along with decays in associated ecological, economic, subsistence and cultural values) will have socio-economic and physical impacts on coastal societies. At present the coastal societies already face a numerous difficult problems that make challenging for the policy of climate change. In demographic viewpoint, the current people of coastal societies are becoming gradually elder that results of high numbers of internal migration of elderly people with youth out migration (Ali et al., 2016). In financial standpoint, the coastal people is constantly considered by high average unemployment rates, vulnerable financial conditions, including low incomes and stress on services throughout the months of summer due to tourism. Many regions of the coastal zones like England, are facing severe level of multiple deprivation like high levels of deficit related to remunerations, education, employment, skills and training. This might be due to lot of issues, comprising the reliance of naturally poor-skilled, less wages in industrial sectors for example which are related to tourism, that often also need part time and seasonal employees. Seasonal of works also creates it challenging for personnel to development in terms of educations or profession development, as each term of employment may be with a dissimilar company (Hossain et al., 2016). The physical segregation of numerous seaside peoples can also frequently act as a barrier to financial progress. High levels of scarcity and the relative segregation of some coastal societies are the physical hazard of climate effects. The Impact of climate change on a particular agricultural crop, such as bananas, may lead to lost profits, unemployment of farm workers, foreclosures on mortgages, and loss of human, financial and social capital within communities. The disadvantages and hazardous of these regions in the coastal societies are the focus of this research. Here we also demonstrates how the impacts of climate change manifest across the triple-bottom line i.e. economic, environment and social. The principal objective of this chapter is to recognize current climate change vulnerabilities especially to backward coastal communities and make policy recommendations to mitigate these encounters. It also aims to make endorsements to enhance coastal people`s ability to adapt to the climate change and aimed to draw in a range of perceptions on the matter from societies and local and national stakeholders.

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