Impacts of Distributed Generations on Power System: Transmission, Distribution, Power Quality, and Power Stability

Impacts of Distributed Generations on Power System: Transmission, Distribution, Power Quality, and Power Stability

Kamlesh Kumar (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan) and Mahesh Kumar (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1230-2.ch010

Abstract

With increasing population and urbanization, the demand of electricity also increases day by day; to fulfill this demand, clean and environment-friendly distributed generations are being installed, but these have some issues in power section. With the integration of DG load curve is levelized, feeder voltage is improved; loading effect on the transformer and branches is reduced, and provides electricity with no pollution. This chapter investigates impacts of DGs to the power system; distributed generation means to generate electric power near the power consumption point. Power quality and reliability can be enhanced by the interconnection of distribution generation to an existing distribution system. However, there are so many effects of distributed generation e.g. changing of load losses, increasing of short circuit levels, voltage transient, congestions in the system branches, power quality, and reliability and network protection issues such as false tripping, nuisance tripping, unintentional islanding, neutral shifting is mainly affected.
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Introduction

Mostly centralized generation based electric power system is present, in which electric power is send from the generation point to the consumers located at very farthest places, which results in huge power loss and un-regularity in system voltage, also huge amount of money is required for transmission system and their maintenance as well. Hence, now a day’s decentralized generation technique is being used and more and more electric power is being generated by using the renewable energy source (solar, wind and micro-hydro) to avoid these losses and to complete the fast-increasing electrical energy requirement. Distributed generation is done from renewable energy resources and cogeneration. Distributed generation (DG) is generally less than 10MW in size, interconnected with distribution feeder, substation and at consumer level. Distributed generation has some positive points over centralized electric power system e.g. rather free location in network area, according to the availability of resources size of distributed generation is planned, grid becomes more reliable, and also there is no considerable impact of greenhouse effect of this technology. Distributed generation system results in low transmission and distribution losses, service quality is enhanced and voltage regulation is also improved. But, on the other hand, it may create many more problems of power system efficiency and their reliability, over voltage and safety issues, there may be occurrence of transients because of connection and disconnection of generators according to the requirement of power or also during their operation and level of short circuit is increased (Lucian I.D, M. A. 2014). The generation of electricity at consumer end (distributed generation) come into practice because of its low cost, enhancement of efficiency, and clean energy from solar panel, Wind turbine, tidal power plants, Magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) generation, and fuel cell etc. (Alhelou et al., 2019; Makdisie et al., 2018; Alhelou et al., 2018; Alhelou et al., 2016; Haes Alhelou et al., 2019; Njenda et al., 2018).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Reliability: A measure of the degree of certainty that the relay, or relay system, will perform correctly.

Protective Relay: It is an intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) which receive measured signals from the secondary side of CTs and VTs and detect whether the protected unit is in a stressed condition (based on their type and configuration) or not. A trip signal is sent by protective relays to the circuit breakers to disconnect the faulty components from power system if necessary.

Harmonics: A not pure sinusoidal wave is called harmonic wave.

Distributed Generation: It is done from renewable energy resources and cogeneration. Distributed generation (DG) is generally less than 10MW in size, interconnected with distribution feeder, substation and at consumer level.

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