Impacts of Phosphate Amendments at a Contaminated Site: Soil Sustainability

Impacts of Phosphate Amendments at a Contaminated Site: Soil Sustainability

Kanchan P. Rathoure (Eco Group of Companies, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7940-3.ch006

Abstract

Soil amendments can be used to cost-effectively reduce the bioavailability and mobility of toxic metals in contaminated soils. Phosphate amendments effectively can be transformed to soil from the non-residual (sum of exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn, and organic) to the residual fraction. Metal immobilization can be attributed to the metal-induced formation of chloropyromorphite which can be identified in the surface soil, subsurface soil, and plant rhizosphere soil. Phosphate treatments can significantly reduce metal translocation from the roots to the shoots in the plants/crops possibly via the formation of chloropyromorphite on the cell walls of roots. Application of combined H3PO4 with phosphate rock can be provided an effective alternative to the current phosphate remediation technologies for contaminated soils.
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Soil Amendments

Soil amendments can be used to cost-effectively reduce the bioavailability and mobility of toxic metals in contaminated soils. One study was conducted at a Pb-contaminated site to evaluate the effectiveness of P-induced Pb immobilization by Cao et al., 2002. Phosphate was applied at a 4.0 molar ratio of P to Pb with three treatments:  T1, 100% of P from H3PO4; T2, 50% P from H3PO4 + 50% P from Ca(H2PO4)2; and T3, 50% P from H3PO4 + 5% phosphate rock. Phosphate amendments effectively transformed soil Pb from the nonresidual (sum of exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn, and organic) to the residual fraction, with residual Pb increase by 19−48% for T1, 22−50% for T2, and 11-55% for T3, respectively. Lead immobilization was attributed to the P-induced formation of chloropyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6Cl2], which was identified in the surface soil, subsurface soil, and plant rhizosphere soil. Occurrence of chloropyromorphite was evident 220 days after P addition for T1 and T2 treatments and 330 days for T3. Visual MINTEQ model and activity-ratio diagram indicated that lead phosphate minerals controlled Pb2+activities in the P-treated soils. Phosphate treatments significantly reduced Pb translocation from the roots to the shoots in the St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrumsecundatum), possibly via the formation of chloropyromorphite on the cell walls of roots. In this field observation, the researcher suggested that P amendments are efficient in reducing Pb mobility via in situ formation of insoluble chloropyromorphite minerals at a field setting. Lead immobilization shows a long-term stability. A mixture of H3PO4 and phosphate rock yields the best overall results for in situ Pb immobilization, with less soil pH change and less P leaching. Application of combined H3PO4 with phosphate rock may provide an effective alternative to the current phosphate remediation technologies for contaminated soils.

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