Implementation of Outcome-Based Education for a Course: A Case Study

Implementation of Outcome-Based Education for a Course: A Case Study

Tanya Buddi, Anitha Lakshmi Akkireddy, U. S. Jyothi
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2245-5.ch013
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Outcome-based education (OBE) is a learning theory based on objectives that derive outcomes for each portion of an instructional scheme. Every student has to accomplish the objectives at the end of the instructional experience. OBE is not limited to well-defined teaching or direct assessment strategies but involves indirect assessments to assist the learners in the attainment of defined outcomes. In this chapter, a case study on a course is described in all aspects of direct and indirect assessments. Initially, a correlation between programme outcomes (POs) and course outcomes (COs) is established duly analyzing the impact of CO on PO. The evaluation of COs using assessment tools are well-defined. The CO attainment percentage is evaluated using statistical methodologies, and the same is categorized to high, medium, and low-level attainments. The achieved level of attainments is correlated to Pos, and the same is adapted for all the courses in order to initiate the corrective action for further improvements in successive years.
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OBE based on results has many inherent benefits that must make it an attractive model for curriculum planning with the assistance of curriculum developers, teachers, employers, students and the public. Despite the obvious appeal of OBE, research documentation and its effects are relatively low. Nevertheless, there are strong arguments for introduction of outcome-based education and assessment of its role in education. However, it represents that it is almost certainly a valuable education tool. Hopefully its adoption will foster a legitimate discussion about various kinds of educational outcomes are expected in and quantify the same (Harden, 1999). It is now accepted that learning outcomes should occupy a key position in curriculum plan and a model for the curriculum which recognizes as given in Figure 1

Figure 1.

A model for the curriculum emphasizing the importance of educational outcomes in curriculum planning


OBE meant to focus and organize everything in an educational system that is essential for all students to be successful at the end of learning experiences. It focuses on improvement in student learning and ultimate performance abilities to the highest possible levels at the end of graduation (Spady, 1994). In UK, the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education includes Outcome-Based learning, as a component of the programme specifications to be reviewed. Institutions expect, to have a set of intended learning outcomes of the programme, teaching & learning methods that enable learners to achieve the outcomes. Further, the assessment methods are used to demonstrate the achievement (Harden, 2002). Malaysia has an experience of OBE paradigm shift, although it is not mandatory to follow the recommendations, the Malaysian Engineering Education Model (MEEM) paved the way for engineering schools to adopt OBE system. University Putra Malaysia (UPM's) experiences to develop the curriculum from first principles can be seen as an initiative and example of an institution on its way to OBE, but not without its own problems. In keeping with the ISO 9001 quality management system, the spirit of continuous improvement should be the driving force to keep institutions on the path to curriculum excellence (Aziz, 2005).

A lot of collaboration in organising and execution to implement the OBE system and requires through analysis. With this realization, UPM created an office automation system, which aids the staff of the institute to monitor the application of OBE (Jaafar, 2008). Appropriate application of OBE provides opportunities for fresh concepts and difficulties to create an approach to education that has resulted in enhanced learning outcomes. However, to effectively adopt OBE through tertiary schooling, both the educational staff and students need to know the roles goals. Education in tertiary institutions should not be a linear one-sided model, but rather an active and engaging process that is a transition for learners to prepare for the workplace (Rajaee, 2013). Institutions should focus on activity based education to encourage the learners to develop good attendance habits at the start of their studies (Taylor et al., 2017).

The essential elements for OBE to be successful is identification of learning material, student’s achievement demonstrable measurables, multiple instructional and assessment strategies utilized to meet the needs of each and every student and adequate time and needed assistance to be provided so that each student can reach the maximum potential (Chandra, 2008). Tina has presented the consequences of academic performance of students related to their attendance, level of study, work shift, ethnicity, whether participants had any dependents, and how studies are funded (Tina et al., 2019).

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