Implementing DWDM Lambda-Grids

Implementing DWDM Lambda-Grids

Marlyn Kemper Littman (Nova Southeastern University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch089
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Abstract

Unprecedented demand for ultrafast and dependable access to computing Grids contributes to the accelerating use of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology as a Lambda-Grid enabler. In the Lambda-Grid space, the DWDM infrastructure provisions dynamic lambdas or wavelengths of light ondemand to support terabyte and petabyte transmission rates; seamless access to large-scale aggregations of feature-rich resources; and extendible Grid and inter- Grid services with predictable performance guarantees (Boutaba, Golab, Iraqi, Li, & St. Arnaud, 2003). DWDM Lambda-Grids consist of shared network components that include interconnected federations of other Grids, dense collections of computational simulations, massive datasets, specialized scientific instruments, metadata repositories, large-scale storage systems, digital libraries, and clusters of supercomputers (Naiksatam, Figueira, Chiappari, & Bhatnagar, 2005). As a consequence of the convergence of remarkable advances in DWDM technology and high-performance computing, Lambda-Grids support complex problem resolution in fields that include seismology, neuroscience, bioinformatics, chemistry, and nuclear physics. This chapter begins with a discussion of Grid development and DWDM technical fundamentals. In the sections that follow, the role of the virtual organization (VO) in establishing and supporting DWDM Lambda-Grid initiatives; capabilities of the Globus Toolkit (GT) in facilitating Lambda-Grid construction; distinguishing characteristics of Lambda-Grid operations, architectures, and protocols; and major Web services (WS) specifications in the Lambda-Grid space are examined. Descriptions of DWDM Lambda- Grid initiatives and security challenges associated with DWDM Lambda-Grid implementations are presented. Finally, trends in DWDM Lambda-Grid research are introduced.
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Introduction

Unprecedented demand for ultrafast and dependable access to computing Grids contributes to the accelerating use of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology as a Lambda-Grid enabler. In the Lambda-Grid space, the DWDM infrastructure provisions dynamic lambdas or wavelengths of light on-demand to support terabyte and petabyte transmission rates; seamless access to large-scale aggregations of feature-rich resources; and extendible Grid and interGrid services with predictable performance guarantees (Boutaba, Golab, Iraqi, Li, & St. Arnaud, 2003).

DWDM Lambda-Grids consist of shared network components that include interconnected federations of other Grids, dense collections of computational simulations, massive datasets, specialized scientific instruments, metadata repositories, large-scale storage systems, digital libraries, and clusters of supercomputers (Naiksatam, Figueira, Chiappari, & Bhatnagar, 2005). As a consequence of the convergence of remarkable advances in DWDM technology and high-performance computing, Lambda-Grids support complex problem resolution in fields that include seismology, neuroscience, bioinformatics, chemistry, and nuclear physics.

This chapter begins with a discussion of Grid development and DWDM technical fundamentals. In the sections that follow, the role of the virtual organization (VO) in establishing and supporting DWDM Lambda-Grid initiatives; capabilities of the Globus Toolkit (GT) in facilitating Lambda-Grid construction; distinguishing characteristics of Lambda-Grid operations, architectures, and protocols; and major Web services (WS) specifications in the Lambda-Grid space are examined. Descriptions of DWDM Lambda-Grid initiatives and security challenges associated with DWDM Lambda-Grid implementations are presented. Finally, trends in DWDM Lambda-Grid research are introduced.

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Background

Originally, Grids such as factoring via networked-enabled recursion (FAFNER), Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and FightAIDSAtHome relied on the donation of unused computing processes by anonymous participants to support persistent connectivity to geographically distributed information technology (IT) resources. These Grids used the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) Internet protocol suite for enabling access to distributed resources via the commodity or public Internet. Problems with TCP/IP, including an inability to transport massive information flows over long distances with quality of service (QoS) and accommodate resource reservations in advance in accordance with application requirements, contributed to the popularity of DWDM technology as a Lambda-Grid enabler.

Present-day DWDM Lambda-Grids, such as Data TransAtlantic Grid (DataTAG) facilitate transparent sharing of visualization, scientific, and computational resources in domains that include health care, crisis management, earth science, and climatology, and serve as testbeds for evaluating the capabilities of new network architectures, protocols, and security mechanisms. Interdisciplinary research supported by DWDM Lambda-Grids contributes to an understanding of planet formation and brain functions; development of new cancer treatments; and the identification and management of genetic disorders resulting in premature aging and diabetes.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Vulnerabilities: Flaws in a Lambda-Grid’s design, management, or operations that can be exploited to violate security policies and procedures.

Web Services Description Language: Defines an XML grammar for describing network services as collections of communication endpoints that enable information exchange.y

Chromatic Dispersion: Spreading of light pulses as they transit an optical fiber that culminates in signal distortion.

Attenuation: Loss of signal strength and power as a signal passes through the optical fiber medium.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model: Seven-layer architectural model developed by the International Standards Organization to describe standardized network operations.

Infrastructure: Network platform that supports research, production applications, and experimentation.

Service-Oriented Architecture: Information systems architecture that facilitates dynamic integration of loosely coupled services with clearly defined interfaces. Services operate independently of development platforms.

Distributed Virtual Computer (DVC): A computational environment that facilitates the design and implementation of distributed applications that operate in conjunction with DWDM Lambda-Grids (Taesombut & Chien, 2004).

Lambda-Grid: Collection of distributed resources that appears as an integrated virtual computing system to the end-user. Operates over a DWDM infrastructure (Wu & Chien, 2004).

Lambda: Lightpath or wavelength of light.

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