Importance of 3D Printing Technology in Medical Fields

Importance of 3D Printing Technology in Medical Fields

Ranjit Barua (O. M. Dayal Group of Institutions, India), Sudipto Datta (IIEST Shibpur, India), Amit Roychowdhury (IIEST Shibpur, India) and Pallab Datta (IIEST Shibpur, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9167-2.ch002


Three-dimensional or 3D printing technology is a growing interest in medical fields like tissue engineering, dental, drug delivery, prosthetics, and implants. It is also known as the additive manufacturing (AM) process because the objects are done by extruding or depositing the material layer by layer, and the material may be like biomaterials, plastics, living cells, or powder ceramics. Specially in the medical field, this new technology has importance rewards in contrast with conventional technologies, such as the capability to fabricate patient-explicit difficult components, desire scaffolds for tissue engineering, and proper material consumption. In this chapter, different types of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques are described that are applied in the medical field, especially in community health and precision medicine.
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Types Of 3D Printing Technology

Various methods of three-dimensional printing technology are available, stereo-lithography (SLA) technology is one of them [Hornbeck, 1997]. In this technique the SLA materials are generally light sensitive, solidification is initiated by laser undergoing photon [Mertz, 2013]. On the other hand other 3D printing technologies are now offered as well as selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modelling (FDM), three-dimensional bio-printing (3DP), digital light processing (DLP), and laminated object manufacturing (LOM). Table 1 represents the processes and materials details which are using different types of 3D printing technologies. Whatever the printing technology is different but the fundamental hypothesis is that the item containing with the limited layers, also the more consisting the information of layers and also requires to elevate the declaration [Gross, 2014]. Different methods are available to attach the layers, several materials can be simply melted and gelatinous or several of materials can be molded by laser and also be easily gelatinous. An absolute set of 3D printing technique containing with the printer specific CAD software for designing any customized moulds and also printer machine, the major part of the 3D printing process. Printer may be hot extrusion base or inkjet base [Science and Society, 2013; Hoy, 2013].

Table 1.
Different types of 3D printing technology
SLSSelective laser sintering process, it is similar as SLA method, though materials are solidified by infrared laser.Ceramic, plastics, metal materials and wax. Tay et al., 2003
FDMFused deposition modeling process, this printing technology is the most fundamental 3D printing technology and most commonly used.PLA, ABS types polymer and some foods Anitha et al., 2001
LOMLaminated object manufacturing process, in this technology the materials are fused by hot roller.Metallic materials and ceramic Melchels et al., 2010
SLAStereo-lithography process, in this process the light responsive materials are solidified in to a lean layer.ThermoplasticsMueller et al., 1999
DLPDigital light processing technique, it is also similar to SLA process, though it is more rapidly because the total layer manufacture after scanning the laser .Photopolymer Singh, 2011;
Utela et al.,2008
3D Bio-printingIn this technique biomaterials are use as a printing ink, basically this technology is use in tissue engineering process.Alginate, Hydrogel.Datta et al., 2108

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