Importance of Sustainable Rural Development Through Agrarian Reforms: An Indian Scenario

Importance of Sustainable Rural Development Through Agrarian Reforms: An Indian Scenario

Partha Mukhopadhyay, Madhabendra Sinha, Partha Pratim Sengupta
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9621-9.ch052
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The chapter tries to find out the relationship between public expenditures on infrastructure related to agriculture and allied factors and agricultural sustainability in Indian context. India has been suffering from appalling chronic poverty and to reduce the same, we need to focus on rural development, particularly in agriculture as it is unavoidable relation with economic development. Gini index of India is 33.9 (2011) i.e. asymmetrical wealth distribution exists. India is being burdened with a population of 1.2 billion as in 2015. The reciprocal relationship between agrarian reform and democratic development is pronounced. Agrarian reform was one of the focal points around which social mobilization occurred. Sustainable rural development could be achieved by a new balance as we find from some econometric model, which is being sought between agriculture and public expenditure and also export of agricultural produce. Adopting bottom-up agricultural development approaches which emphasize the involvement of the rural people in the implementations of different development programmes may escalate agrarian reforms.
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Development is a concept construing changes in the conditions of well being of the people irrespective of income level. It is generally evaluated in terms of changes in aesthetic qualities of the community, i.e. demographics, housing, employment, income, market effects, public services etc. Of late India shows as one of the fastest growing economies in the world. This chapter brushes one more stroke the emerging relationship of infrastructure availability and productivity growth. This analysis relies on both qualitative and quantitative measures of impacts.

Infrastructure, no doubt, is the backbone of any society. Infrastructure development is a sine qua non for accelerating progress of the quality of human life. Though infrastructure projects, involve huge initial capital investments, high incremental capital output ratio, high risk with long gestation periods, and low rate of returns on investments but infrastructure development particularly, rural infrastructure encompass economic development of the country. Rural infrastructure has a direct and strong relationship with farmers. Rural infrastructure development is supposed to be a benchmark to transform the existing traditional agriculture or subsistence farming into a most modern, commercial and dynamic farming system so that India could oust the surplus labourers to any other productive jobs. We can group infrastructure under some categories as given in Table 1.

Table 1.
Categorization of infrastructure
BasedResourcesRural SectorUrban Sector
Input Based-Agricultural input like Seed, Fertilizer, Pesticides, Farm equipment and machinery etc.-
Resource Based:WaterIrrigation and DrinkingDrinking
ElectricityPump and HouseholdHousehold and Industrial Purpose
Physical Infrastructure:Telecommunication, Road connectivity, Transport, storage (including Cold storage), processing, preservation, and Sanitation etc.Required all ResourcesRequired all Resources
Institutional Infrastructure:Education, research, information & communication services, financial services, market, etc.Required all ResourcesRequired all Resources

Source: Authors’ Own Observation

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