Improvements of Virtual and Augmented Reality for Advanced Treatments in Urology

Improvements of Virtual and Augmented Reality for Advanced Treatments in Urology

Ranjit Barua (CHST, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India) and Surajit Das (R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8371-5.ch008
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Abstract

Present signs of development in virtual and augmented reality have offered an important amount of inventive outfits into the customer market. Virtual reality (VR) technology has now affected the optimistic features of treatment. Surgeries in especially urology are constantly emerging, and the virtual reality model has become an important supplement in urologist teaching and training lists. This chapter provides a summary of the significance and varieties of virtual reality methods, their present applications in the area of urology (surgery), and upcoming implications.
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1. Introduction

The idea of virtual reality (VR) includes the computational environs with which an operator can interact prominently (Hamacher et al., 2018). In medical uses, virtual reality is now being applied, particularly in the region of surgical simulation (Sutherland et al., 2019). As expertise improvements, virtual reality simulation will show a significant training role for together occupants and urologists previously in practice (Chinnock et al., 1994). This chapter inspects the history of virtual reality (VR), present advances, and its upcoming inferences for the area of urology. The idea of virtual reality (VR) includes the generation of computational environments with which an operator can involve directly (Linte et al., 2013). However, several of the theoretical and applied basics of virtual reality (VR) were previously considered and trained in the 1980s, the enormously developed configurations of demonstrations, interactivity, instruments, and calculating power currently accessible in strategies recommend an innovative area of presentations to the medicinal-surgical region and also to urology in particular (Hamacher et al., 2018) (Moro et al., 2017). This development is also moving the medical science and health care specifically the surgical area (Tepper et al., 2017) (Ali et al., 2018). Fig.1. shows the involvement of VR/AR in modern medical science. Urology knowledge and surgical performs are continually developing and the simulation has become a significant match in urologist training programs (Hamacher et al., 2018). Virtual reality methods for the image-guided surgical procedure have been confirmed prospectively in the area of urology by ancillary direction for numerous complaints (Johnston et al., 2018). A growing number of preoperative imaging modalities have been applied to make complete surgical road maps (Del Pozo et al., 2019). The outlining of these surgical plans with the surgical idea of actual life has been created in dissimilar techniques like acoustic, electromagnetic, visual, etc. recommending the mixture of numerous methods to deliver a greater outcome (Sutherland et al., 2019). A real-time electromagnetic sensors was used percutaneous kidney access, which solves the inherent limitations of conventional approaches of kidney access, permitting exact, harmless, fast, and sucessful puncture of the renal collecting system (Lima et al., 2017). One of the difficulties of steering methods is soft-tissue deformations, needful positive images (Ali et al., 2018).

Figure 1.

Involvement of VR and AR in modern medical science.

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While the direction-finding surgeries deliver results equivalent to or better than traditional methods, most of the effort has been completed in comparatively minor groups of patients, therefore, the demanding studies with superior sample sizes (Smigelski et al., 2020). Virtual reality (VR) is a 3D, computational created environment that can be opened by a virtual reality headset, permitting individuals to engage themselves in this virtual world (Shah et al., 2001) (Sutherland et al., 2019). Augmented reality (AR) arrangements layer virtual evidence over a live camera feed into a receiver, or by a tablet device or smartphone (Sutherland et al., 2019). The improved step of revolution and successive decrease in the cost of types of machinery has revealed the opportunity to use virtual reality and augmented reality uses in conventional medical practice and education (Schenkman et al., 2008). This simulator could recover the knowledge curve for upcoming surgeons whereas decreasing patients’ contact to possible risk or trauma (Hamacher et al., 2016). Fig. 2 shows how the virtual and augmented reality involves in modern urological surgery (Kidney stone remove). An increasing amount of imaging modalities of preoperative have been applied to create full surgical plans (Tepper et al., 2017). The conception of difficult anatomy and can simulate difficulties to advantage train the specialist for utmost possibilities. With supplementary medical events, they have the possibility to grow rapidly and accurateness (Nedas et al., 2004). This is additionally developed by the beginning of new technology, that emphases on trace/force feedback consciousness, for instance, a stylus which is capable of simulator a needle or scalpel and permits the beginner to improve an accepting of exactly how it senses to cut over dissimilar tissue (Breda et al., 2016). Right now, this technology is like a renaissance in medical science.

Figure 2.

Contribution of the virtual and augmented reality in modern urological surgery for the removal of kidney stone.

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Key Terms in this Chapter

Surgical Navigation: A system which can permits medical experts or surgeons to exactly track instrument places and then plan the instrument place on the preoperative imaging data.

Urology: A medical study which examines the medicinal and surgical cases and diseases of the patients’ urinary tract and reproductive organs of male patients.

Virtual Reality: A computational simulation process in which person can interact within an artificial 3D environment by applying modern electronics devices, like special spectacles with a display or gloves fixed with sensors.

Cystoscopy: A process, where urologist use a cystoscope (a hollow tube equipped with a lens) to inspect the lining of patients’ bladder and the tube which carries urine out from urethra.

Augmented Reality: An improved version of the actual physical world that is attained by the use of digital visual essentials, sound, or additional sensory stimuli provided through technology.

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