Incorporating Security and Energy Efficiency for Multimedia Communications in WANets: A Cross-Layer Design

Incorporating Security and Energy Efficiency for Multimedia Communications in WANets: A Cross-Layer Design

Lamia Kaddar (University of Versailles/PRiSM, France)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0321-9.ch014
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Abstract

The security of multimedia data in Wireless Ad hoc Networks (WANet) is commonly provided by encryption, which consists in transforming a plain text message into an unintelligible ciphertext. Nevertheless, the classical and modern ciphers have all been developed without taking into consideration the intrinsic characteristics of multimedia flows. In this chapter, the author proposes to reduce the computational requirements for the multimedia flow’s encryption when the energy is a limited resource, as it is the case of WANets. Thus, the chapter defines a new profile of Secure Real Time Protocol (SRTP), named EE_SRTP. EE_SRTP provides energy efficiency to SRTP, which provides essentially confidentiality, message authentication, and replay protection to the RTP traffic. In EE_SRTP, the author exploits the dependency existing between the frames created by the inter-frame coding to further improve the energy-efficiency of the encryption process. In contrast with the existing approaches, this chapter presents an experimental model that integrates EE_SRTP to Video LAN Coding (VLC). Therefore, to validate EE_SRTP, the author implements a secure version of VLC (SecVLC). The performance evaluation demonstrates clearly that using this new scheme in the context of wireless ad hoc nodes allows saving energy while ensuring a high level of content confidentiality, without adding an overhead to the wireless network.
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1. Introduction

Nowadays, Wireless Ad hoc Networks (WANet) have a large area of applications especially in the real time communication space. However, the success of such applications depends strongly on the user’s trust in the provided degree of security.

Wireless Ad hoc Networks (WANET) can be classified by their application:

  • Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET)

  • Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN)

  • Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

MANET: Mobile Ad hoc Networks

  • A mobile ad hoc network (MANET), is a self-configuring infrastructureless network of mobile devices connected by wireless links. Ad hoc is Latin and means “for this purpose”.

  • Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic. Such networks may operate by them selves or may be connected to the larger Internet.

  • MANETs are a kind of wireless ad hoc networks that usually has a routeable networking environment on top of a Link Layer ad hoc network.

  • The growths of laptops and 802.11/Wi-Fi wireless networking have made MANETs a popular research topic since the mid 1990s. Many academic papers evaluate protocols and their abilities, assuming varying degrees of mobility within a bounded space, usually with all nodes within a few hops of each other. Different protocols are then evaluated based on measure such as the packet drop rate, the overhead introduced by the routing protocol, end-to-end packet delays, network throughput etc.

WMN: Wireless Mesh Networks

Wireless Mesh networks is becoming a major paradigm for constructing user access networks that provide community or city-wide Internet connectivity. The network coding, as a new technique which intermediate nodes in the network not only forward but also process the incoming information flows, will have a good application in wireless Mesh networks. Firstly, comparing traditional routing and network coding under unicast introduce the basic idea of network coding.

WSN: Wireless Sensor Networks

Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional sensor nodes that are small in size and communicate untethered in short distances. These tiny sensor nodes, which consist of sensing, data processing, and communicating components, leverage the idea of sensor networks based on collaborative effort of a large number of nodes. Sensor networks represent a significant improvement over traditional sensors, which are deployed in the following two ways:

  • Sensors can be positioned far from the actual phenomenon, i.e., something known by sense perception. In this approach, large sensors that use some complex techniques to distinguish the targets from environmental noise are required.

  • Several sensors that perform only sensing can be deployed. The positions of the sensors and communications topology are carefully engineered. They transmit time series of the sensed phenomenon to the central nodes where computations are performed and data are fused.

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