Indicators for Measuring Changeover Activities: Operationalization of 4Ps model of Changeovers

Indicators for Measuring Changeover Activities: Operationalization of 4Ps model of Changeovers

Yuridia Vega (Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico), Roberto Romero-López (Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico), Norma Alicia Barboza-Tello (Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexico), Alex Bernardo Pimentel-Mendoza (Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexico) and Manuel Javier Rosel-Solis (Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexico)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1052-0.ch010

Abstract

At present, the manufacturing industries require the implementation of more efficient and flexible fabrication processes to offer high-quality products. The changeover methodologies can be used to reduce the setup times, allowing the industries to be more competitive. The application of changeover methodologies is mainly influenced by the 4Ps model, which is composed of organizational and design factors, such as people, practices, product, and processes. However, this model is not useful in determining the relationship between each one of the Ps and the changeover activities. In this chapter, the authors have developed an exhaustive review of the references to establish the indicators to design an instrument composed of 79 items and divided into the five constructs of the 4P model, which was statistically validated using the Kendall W indicator and the Cronbach´s alpha indicator.
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Introduction

Currently, in the industry, several factors such as the growing demand from markets and customers which demand higher quality products, have influenced the way by which organizations use their personnel, facilities, and administrative and production systems and be capable to respond to the need of manufacturing flexibility in relation to the variety of products and production volume at profitable costs. Recently Chabowski et al. (2016) detected through an analysis of causes, that a production line, does not reach the established required standards mainly because of changeover activities. Therefore, one of the key factors that allows an industry to be more productive is the reduction of build-up production times, achieved through the implementation of changeover methodologies. The literature reports that a significant number of companies have implemented the SMED methodology (Single Minute Exchange of Die) or its variations, combining it with lean manufacturing methodologies. However, in those reports are not consider the factors and variables that intervene in the production systems deployment, so the results are often not optimal. Researchers have to consider that the design and organizational factors play an important role because they are the basis of operational and administrative decisions within the companies. The production variables are identify and controlled flexibility and efficiency inside and outside the organization.

Reik et al. (2006) , present a model of rapid changeover that considers organizational and design factors to support increased capacity and flexibility in manufacturing processes and thus respond timely to the customer's needs. This Theoretical Model shows the relation of positive influence and correlations between four factors: Product, Process, Human Resource (People) and Work Methods (Practice) and is called the model of the 4P’s. In this model, the rapid changeover activities are understand as essential tasks such as disassembly, assembly, adjustments, and validation, involved in the production process and its accomplishment improves efficiency and facilities availability. On the other hand, the Process and Product factors are present at the initial stage of the productive processes and are directly relate to machine designs, use of tools, manufacturing systems, and products, and all the factors that can contribute to flexibility, simplify, through eliminating or adding elements that contribute to the capacity and stability of each system run. “People” and “Practices” factors are relate to the industry functioning, as they organize and use their resources to achieve greater profitability and competitiveness. Van Goubergen et al. (2002), suggest that the assignment of employees with specific skills and abilities influences the performance of their responsibilities and the provided resources.

As is shown, the model presents a great option to support the efficiency of changeover implementation. However, because this model is theoretical, the 4P factors cannot be explain just with these concepts, it requires the definition of measurable and observable variables and so to determine the degree of relationship that each of the P's has with the activities of the rapid changeover. In order to make sense of the 4P's model, a review has been realize from which variables were obtained and used to design an instrument of 79 items.

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