Individual Journalistic Bias Leads to Public Propaganda: The Integration of Social Intuitionist Model (SIM) and Hierarchy of Influences Model (HIM)

Individual Journalistic Bias Leads to Public Propaganda: The Integration of Social Intuitionist Model (SIM) and Hierarchy of Influences Model (HIM)

Young Joon Lim (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA) and Jennifer Lemanski (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7439-3.ch008
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Abstract

The social intuitionist model (SIM) highlights the superiority of intuitive emotions over reasoning process in the link of moral judgment and reasoning, addressing the issues of private or individual intuitions of moral judgments on an interpersonal communication level. While the SIM can be applied to explain why journalists are biased and prone to producing intuitive news stories, the hierarchy of influences model (HIM) offers a theoretical framework that affects media content, which journalists and media organizations create in a social and cultural approach to propaganda. This chapter explores how the integration of SIM and HIM demonstrates the path to propagandistic news stories manufactured by intuitive journalists and their biased news outlets on the macro social structure level.
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To emphasize the SIM as a descriptive model not a prescriptive one, Haidt (2001) conceptualizes the human moral judgment process with six basic links in the SIM. They are (1) intuitive judgment, (2) post hoc reasoning, (3) reasoned persuasion, (4) social persuasion, (5) reasoned judgment and (6) private reflection. Individual moral judgments by intuitions are applied to the first four (Links 1- 4), while the last two are used for a group of or a majority of normal people by reasoning. It is worth noting that these links focus on an exploration and illustration of how humans make a quick judgment on the rightness or wrongness of an action, similar to the expression of gut feelings on moral judgments. All the links together complete the process of moral reasoning likely to be a post hoc attempt to justify an individual initial judgment.

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